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    He mahi pāhekoheko e whakaata ana i te whakamahi a ngāi Māori o nehe i te hekaheka hei kai, hei rongoā anō.

    He tino whata kai a Tāne-mahuta. He kaupeka anō, he kai anō ka horahia e ia. Whakaputa ai te nuinga o ngā hekaheka i ā rātou ropihua i te ngahuru, i te tīmatanga rānei o te takurua. I mōhio ngā tūpuna ki ngā hekaheka reka, i mōhio anō me kai ko ngā hekaheka anake kāore he paitini i roto. I mōhio hoki rātou ki te tautuhi i ia momo, ko hea anō te kāinga o tēnā, o tēnā. Ko ētahi o ngā hekaheka i kainga, he rongoā anō.

    Ko ētahi noa o ngā hekaheka i kainga i neherā he harore, arā, he kakau, he taupoki anō tōna. Ko ētahi i rite ki te taringa te āhua, ko ētahi he rite ki te wheo tautau, ki te huamanu rānei.

    Pāwhiria ngā ingoa o ngā hekaheka i roto i te mahi pāhekoheko, kia mōhio ai koe i pēhea te whakamahi a ngā tūpuna i aua hekaheka, ā, kitea ai aua hekaheka i hea. 

    He whakamihi

    I hua ake tēnei rauemi i tētahi aratohu pūtaiao mā ngā kaiako, ko Ngā Hekaheka o Aotearoa te ingoa. I tuhia te aratohu nei e Tākuta Peter Buchanan, o Manaaki Whenua; Tākuta Georgina Stewart, o Te Kura Mātauranga, Te Whare Wānanga o AUT; me Hēni Jacob. He mea tuhi ngā rauemi nei i runga i te aro nui ki te titiro a te Māori ki ēnei āhuatanga.

    Tēnei te mihi a te Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao ki a Manaaki Whenua me ngā kaituhi kua whakaae nei, kua āwhina nei anō hoki i te whakawhitinga o ngā kōrero nei hei rauemi ipurangi.  E taea ana tētahi tauira whitihiko o te Aratohu mā te Pouako te tiki atu i Huia Publishers.

    Ngā Tohutoro

    Best, E. 1924. The Māori. Tombs, Wellington.
    Riley, M. 1994. Māori Healing and Herbal. New Zealand Ethnobotanical Sourcebook. Viking Sevenseas N.Z., Paraparaumu

    Manatārua o te whakaahua kei te tuarongo Pilens, 123RF Ltd.

    Tuhinga

    Pūtawa, Laetiporus portentosus (pūtawa)

    Noho ai, kai ai te pūtawa i te kiko o ngā tawai ora i te wao a Tāne. Ko ōna ropihua, he toro whakawaho i te kahiwi, i te ikeiketanga o te rākau. Ka tere tonu te tipu, ka tipu hoki kia rahi. Engari ka piri ki te rākau mō ētahi wiki noa, mō ētahi marama noa rānei, kātahi ka ruha, ka taka ki te papa. Ina kohia i te papa, me mātua whakamaroke i mua i te whakamahi.

    I te taha rongoā, he mea tapahi te pūtawa ki ōna anō ngakunga roa, ngakunga tāwariwari, ā, ka whakapiria atu ēnei hei karapoti i ngā tūnga. Ka tapahia he kōhao rahi ake i te tūnga, ā, ka whakamaua atu te pūtawa hei pare ka āta tiaki i te tūnga.

    Arā ētahi atu kōrero mō te whakamahi a ngā tūpuna i tēnei hekaheka, kei Ngā Mātauranga me te Whakamahi a te Māori i ngā Hekaheka.

    WHAKAAHUA: Nā Manaaki Whenua

    Pekepekekiore, Hericium sp. (fungus icicles)

    He ngohe, he kōpīpī ngā ropihua o te pekepekekiore. Ko te āhua ki te titiro atu, he wheo tautau, he tiotau rānei. I whakaahuatia mō te pane-kuīni NZ $1.30 i te tau 2004. Kai ai tēnei hekaheka i te rākau mate, ā, ka tipu ōna ropihua ki ngā rākau kua tino pirau, kua ngohe. Arā ētahi kōrero ruarua mō te kai a ngā tūpuna i te pekepekekiore. Arā hoki tētahi o ōna uri tata i Āhia e kainga nuitia ana. Ko te Hericium erinaceus tētahi harore tino reka, e manako nuitia ana e te tangata, e whakatipuria ana ki te pēke kotakota rākau i ētahi whenua maha o hia. Kua tīmata ētahi whakamātauranga iti i Te Matau a Māui ki te whakatipu i te pekepekekiore hei hoko ki ngā wharekai.

    E ai ki ētahi rangahautanga o nā tata nei, he painga pea kei tētahi momo Hericium mō roto i ngā rongoā o ēnei rā. Kei Ngā harore patu huakita te roanga o ngā kōrero.

    He mahi ā-ringa
    Rapua tēnei hekaheka, te pekepekekiore, i ngā kahiwi o ngā rākau kua pirau, kua takoto ki te papa i te ngahere.

    WHAKAAHUA: Nā Manaaki Whenua

    Angiangi, hawa, Usnea momo

    Arā ētahi momo pukoko (he hekaheka) me ētahi pūkohu (he tipu) i kohia e ngā tūpuna hei uhi ngohe mō ngā tūnga, hei haukoti anō hoki i te rere o te toto. Tērā pea ko te angiangi me te hawa, he ingoa mō ētahi momo pukoko maha kei te wao o Tāne. Ko te pukoko, he hekaheka kua takahoa atu ki ngā pūtau mōkitokito o tētahi kapoke; ko tā te hekaheka, he noho hei kāinga mō ngā pūtau o te kapoke. Ka kapohia e aua pūtau kapoke te pūngao o te aho hei mahi huka (mā te mahi ahotakakame), hei kai mā rāua tahi – mā te kapoke, mā te hekaheka anō. Nō reira ka ora tonu te pukoko i ngā wāhi noho kino – i te ara raima, i te pou o te taiapa, i te ara, i ngā wāhi ka hemo ko te hekaheka me te kapoke ki te kore rāua e piri tahi. Ehara te pūkohu i te hekaheka – he momo tipu kē te pūkohu.

    He mahi ā-ringa
    Kimihia ngā pukoko e piri ana ki ngā pou taiapa me ngā pou hiko, ki te ara hīkoi, ki te huarahi anō. Arā ētahi pukoko ka tupu i ngā taiao maha, tae atu ki ngā taiao kino, engari ko tēnei momo, te angiangi, ko te ngahere anake tōna kāinga noho.

    WHAKAAHUA: Nā Mikey Watson,  CC BY-NC 4.0

    Puapuatai, Aseroe rubra (flower fungus)

    He ātaahua hei kai mā te mata. Engari ka aroha kē te haunga! He āhua rite te hanga o te hekaheka whero nei ki te putiputi, ki te pātangaroa rānei. Kei te papa o te ngahere e tipu ana, ā, kāore pea i kaha kainga e te tangata. Kia pakari, he hāwareware uriuri kei te uptake o ia kawekawe – he rite te piro ki tō te kiko pirau. He uri hoki tēnei hekaheka nō te whānau pihi-haunga. He whakawai tā te hāwareware i te ngaro. Kai ana te ngaro i te hāwareware, riro ana koia te kaikawe i ōna pua atua ki tawhiti. Tērā pea i kainga te puapuatai e te tangata i te wā e pūhouhou ana, he hēki kē te hanga. Kia pao te hua, hei reira toro ai ōna kawekawe keha.

    Kāore e tino kitea te puapuatai i ēnei rā, engari e kitea nuitia ana tētahi o ōna uri tata, he hekaheka pihi-haunga whero anō, i ngā maramara rākau, otaota ka horahia ki te whenua i ngā māra tūmataiti, tūmatanui anō. He haunga anō ngā kawekawe whero o tērā. Engari ehara i te hekaheka taketake o Aotearoa, ā, kāore pea e kainga.

    Ki ōu nā whakaaro, he aha te take he whero, he roa hoki ngā kawekawe o te ropihua o te puapuatai?

    WHAKAAHUA: Te puapuatai kei te pane-kuīni 90 hēneti o te tau 2004. Nā Manaaki Whenua.

    Hakeke, hakeka, Auricularia cornea (wood ear)

    Kitea ai ngā ropihua o te hakeke e tipu ana i te rākau, he āhua rite ki te taringa angiangi, rapa nei te hanga. Kāore he kakau, kāore he pihapiha. He huruhuru kei te mata whakarunga o te taringa, ā, ko te mata momore i tōna taha raro te wāhi e tipu ai ngā pua atua. I te ao o Tāne, he maha ngā momo rākau mate ka tupuria e te hakeke – ko te tawa, ko te māhoe ētahi. Ka āhei te tangata te kohi hakeke mai i te kōanga ki te ngahuru. Kia roa e tipu ana, ka maroke, ka mārō. Ko tōna tāwara … kāore i pērā rawa te reka! Engari kia tunua, ka āhua pakapaka ina ngaua. I tunua tahitia ki ētahi huawhenua, ki ētahi atu kai, kia pai ai ki te korokoro. Tērā tonu pea i kainga i ngā tau whīroki anahe. Kei tētahi waiata i mau i a Hōri Kerei i te tau 1853, i tana pukapuka Ko nga moteatea, me nga hakirara o nga Maori tētahi tīwhiri tautoko i tēnei whakaaro..

    He tau mo te kai-kore
    He aha he kai mā tāua?
    He hakekeke,
    piri ki te karaka
    ā, he pōhue,
    toro ki te whenua;
    Mā wai e keri
    i te makariri

    Ko te hakeke anake te hekaheka o te ao a Tāne kua kohia, kua tukuna hoki hei taonga hoko ki tāwāhi. I āta kohia e ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki i tētahi takiwā i mua, ka whakamarokehia, kātahi ka hokona atu ki Haina. Nō reira he rawa i kohia e te Māori hei mahi moni māna. I tino pēnei mai i ngā 1870 tae noa ki te tau 1900. I ngā tau 1872–1883, he tata ki te 2,000 tana o te hakeke (kua oti te whakamaroke) i hokona ki tāwāhi. He inati tēnei rahi, ina whakaarohia ko tētahi 90% o te taumaha o te hakeke kātahi tonu ka katohia, ka ngaro i te whakamaroketanga.

    Pērā anō i te tawaka, i mua rā he wā anō ka hoatu te hakeke ki ngā tūroro hei patu i te ngau kino o te karaka me te tutu. E ai ki ngā mātauranga whakaora o Haina me ētahi atu wāhi o Āhia, he maha ngā hua taha rongoā o te hakeke. E pai ana hei patu i te maremare, he pai hoki hei patu i te kirikā, he whakaheke i te werawera o te tinana, he pai hoki hei whakakaha i ngā ioio toto me te pūnaha ia-manawa.

    Kei ngā ngahere anō o Haina tēnei mea te hakeke, ā, i kitea i reira he tikanga whakatipu i te hakeke ki te kotakota rākau e mau ana ki te pēke. Nā konā, ko te korenga o te hoko hakeke atu i Aotearoa ki Haina. Ko tātou kē kei te hoko hakeke mai i Haina me ētahi atu whenua o Āhia e whakatipu ana i tēnei hekaheka hei taonga hokohoko mā rātou. Kua kore i tino kohia i ngā ngahere o konei, engari e taea ana te hoko i ngā toa hoko kai Āhia.

    He mahi ā-ringa
    E hokona ana te harore nei kua oti te whakamaroke i ētahi toa, pērā i ngā wharehoko kai hia. Tēnā haere ki te kimi.

    WHAKAAHUA: Nā Manaaki Whenua.

    Tawaka, Agrocybe parasitica (poplar mushroom)

    He hekaheka nui tēnei (ka tupu ētahi kia ‘pereti-tina’ te rahi) ka tupu ki ngā tawa ora me ētahi atu rākau. Kitea ai e toro tiketike mai ana i te kahiwi i te paunga o te raumati me te ngahuru. He roa te kakau, he ‘panekoti’ parauri anō tōna (tirohia te whakaahua). I parauri ai i te mea e kapi katoa ana i te pua atua parauri. I te wā e iti ana, e porotaka ana tōna taupoki, e hono kē ana te ‘remu’ o te panekoti ki te nīao o te taupoki, ā, ko ngā pihapiha parauri e noho huna mai ana ki roto.

    Āpiti atu ki ōna painga hei kai, he rongoā te tawaka ina tunua. I whakamahia hei patu i te kirikā, hei hāpai anō i te hauora o ngā wāhine e hapū ana. I hoatu anō te tawaka ki ngā tūroro i paitinihia e te karaka, e te tutu rānei.

    Engari he taha kino anō tō te tawaka, e ai anō ki te kōrero. Ki te kai tawaka te tangata, kātahi ka tomo ia i te māra hue, ka pirau ngā hua o te hue. Ka hē anō ngā haere ki te hao, ki te hī ika – he iti te ika ka mau i te tangata kua kai i te tawaka.

    Mēnā e minamina ana koe ki te whakatipu tawaka māu, e taea ana te hoko kete whakatipu. Ka hokona he took kua kuhuna ngā pua o te tawaka ki roto hei whakatō, hei whakatupu ki te poro rākau – ki te poplar, ki te plane rānei. Tirohia te Mushroom Gourmet.

    Ngā Tohutoro – Kei reira ngā tohutoro e kōrerotia ana i konei.

    WHAKAAHUA: Nā Manaaki Whenua.

    Pukurau, Lycoperdon utriforme and Calvatia gigantea (puffball)

    He maha ngā momo pukurau. Ko ētahi kei te wao a Tāne e tipu ana, ko ētahi kei ngā papa ahuwhenua. Kai ai ngā pūhihi i ngā maramara otaota kei te oneone. Kia rite te haukū me te paemahana, ka tere tipu te ropihua o te pukurau ki runga ake o te whenua. Ko ētahi ka tino kaitā (tirohia te whakaahua). Ko ngā mea pai hei kai, i kainga i te wā e pūhouhou ana, e mārō ana, ko roto o tōna puku e mā tonu ana te tae. Kia roa e tipu ana, ka ngohe a roto, ka parauri, ka hungahunga, i te pakari haeretanga o ngā pua atua manotini. Ko te noa atu o te pata ua, o te kararehe, ko te puhanga mai o ngā pua atua, waiho ana mā te hau e kawe ki hea, ki hea.

    E ai ki ētahi rangahautanga o nā tata nei, he painga pea kei te Calvatia gigantea mō roto i ngā rongoā o ēnei rā. Kei Ngā harore patu huakita te roanga o ngā kōrero.

    He rongoā anō te pukurau i neherā. I pai hei haukoti i te rere o te toto i ngā tūnga, i pai hei patu i te mamae i te weranga o te kiri i te wai wera, i te ahi rānei. Kei te motu whānui tēnei o ngā hekaheka e tipu ana, engari ko te takiwā kei te awa o Tukituki i Te Matau a Māui, koia pea tētahi wāhi i kaha ai te tipu. He hononga tō te ingoa o te tāone o Waipukurau ki te hekaheka nei, ki te pukurau. He kōrero tā ngā tīpuna mō ngā pukurau e tipu ana ki tētahi puke ki reira. Kohia ai ēnei hekaheka, mauria ai ki tētahi hōpua wai i karangatia ko Te Waipukurau-a-Ruakūhā, kia ngohe ai, kia pai ai hei whakamahi.

    He mahi ā-ringa
    I te ngahuru, kitea ai ngā pukurau rite pea ki te whutupōro te rahi i ngā pāmu. Me puta anō pea ki te kimi i ētahi. He tere te tipu o te pukurau.

    WHAKAAHUA: He tauira o te pukurau, rahi mai, iti mai, nā Ross Beaver/Manaaki Whenua.

    Matakupenga, kōpurawhetū, tūtaewhatitiri, whareatua, Ileodictyon cibarium (basket fungus)

    Kia kite ngā whatu, kia rongo te ihu i tēnei hekaheka, e kore a ia e wareware! Koia anō tētahi o te whānau pihihaunga, pērā i te puapuatai. I kohia e ngā tūpuna i te wā e pūhouhou ana, e hēki ana te hanga, engari ko te wāhi o waho anake i kainga. Ina waiho kia tipu tonu, ka puta ake ko te kupenga mā. He hāwareware keha kei te mata whakaroto o te kupenga, hei tō mai i te ngaro ki roto, ā, mā te ngaro e tītari haere ōna pua atua ki wīwī, ki wāwā.

    E 35 neke atu ngā ingoa Māori puta noa i Aotearoa mō tēnei hekaheka, nō reira he momo i mōhio whānuitia. Ko ētahi ingoa, pērā i te tūtae-whatitiri, e tohu ana i tōna putanga ohorere mai i muri i te āwhā he uira, he whatitiri ōna hoa haere. I Te Waipounamu, ko te whareatua tētahi o ōna ingoa – ko te whare o te kino tōna whakamārama – e kōrero ana mō tōna hanga rite ki te kupenga.

    He mahi ā-ringa
    Ki te tūpono koe ki tētahi matakupenga pai nei te āhua, kinia tō ihu! Pupuhitia atu he hau ki tētahi poihau kua kuhuna ki roto i te matakupenga. Herea te kakī o te poihau. Werohia te poihau kia kore katoa te hau o roto, ka tango mai ai. Te tikanga kua porotaka te hanga o te matakupenga. Pātai atu ki ō hoa he aha te mea nei he rite nei tōna hanga ki te pōro kua mahia ki te kupenga.

    WHAKAAHUA: Te kōpurawhetū me te taputapu pikipiki i te Papatākaro o Hagley, Ōtautahi. Nā Manaaki Whenua.

    HaroreArmillaria novae-zelandiae (honey mushroom)

    Kai ai tēnei hekaheka i te rākau. Kitea ai ngā ropihua – te wāhi ōna ka kainga – i ngā manga o ngā rākau pēnei i te tawa, i te tawai kua taka ki te papa, i te pūtake rānei o ngā rākau e tū tonu ana engari kua mate. Ka tupu ake i te mutunga o te ngahuru, i te tīmatanga rānei o te hōtoke. Arā ētahi wāhi puta noa i Aotearoa e ranea ai te tupu, ka kohia kia rahi tonu. Ka kitea ōna pūhihi mā i raro i te hiako o ngā rākau kua nohoia e ia, i te wā e pōpopo haere ana te rākau. Ka whakatupu hoki te harore i ētahi ‘taura’ pango, rite ki te here pūtu te āhua. Ka toro haere ngā taura nei ki raro i te hiako, ka puta atu hoki ki te oneone toro haere ai ki te kimi puna kai hou māna.

    E ai ki ngā kōrero, arā ētahi o Ngāi Tūhoe kei te kohi tonu i tēnei kai i Te Urewera. Tērā pea ka taea anō hoki tēnei kai te āta whakatipu, ki te poro rākau, ki te maramara rākau rānei, hei ‘kai nō te wao’. He neke atu i te Kotahi ngā momo Armillaria i Aotearoa. Heoi anō, ko ētahi, pērā i te Armillaria limonea, he kawa, ka kapea e te arero. Kāore e mōhiotia ana ngā ingoa o ēnei huānga o te harore kāore nei i rite ki a ia te pai.

    Me paku whakamarama ake i konei, e toru ngā tikanga o te kupu ‘harore’ – tuatahi ake, koia te ingoa o tēnei momo hekaheka kua kōrerotia ake nei. Tuarua, koia anō te kupu Māori mō te whānau hekaheka whai kakau, whai taupoki kikokiko, arā, mō te ‘matiru’. Ā, kei te whakamahia anō hei kupu mō te karangatanga hekaheka whānui, mō te Mātāmuatanga Hekaheka, e ai ki ngā tikanga whakapapa o te pūtaiao Pākehā.

    I kitea tuatahitia te hinātore o te harore (ka kīia he bioluminescence ki te reo Pākehā) i te tau 2015, e tētahi ringa kāmera ka huri haere i te ao ki te whakaahua hekaheka. Engari i mōhio noa atu pea ō tātou tūpuna. I ōna wā anō ka hinātore hoki te rākau kua pirau i te harore, i te mea he hinātore anō ngā pūhihi. Heoi anō, kāore e mōhiotia ana tētahi atu uri pūhana o te puninga Armillaria, huri i te ao. Nō reira, i āhua mīharotia te kitenga o te hinātore o te harore i Aotearoa.

    WHAKAAHUA: Te harore Armillaria limonea e piri ana ki te rākau; he mea whakaahua tēnei ki te rama kohiko. Ko aua harore Armillaria limonea anō, he mea whakaahua i te pōuriuri, nōna ake tōna hinātore. Nā Taylor Lockwood.

    Rights: University of Waikato Te Whare Wananga o Waikato Published 21 November 2018 Size: 1.1 MB Referencing Hub media