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    Noho tahi ai ngā hekaheka, ngā tipu me ngā hanga oreore ki te poho o Tāne-mahuta. Ka mutu, he mahi nui anō ka kawea e tēnā, e tēnā. He piri tahi te hekaheka ki ngā pakiaka o ngā rākau. He āwhina tā te hekaheka I te rākau ki te kapo kohuke, ki te kapo wai i te oneone. Ka kai hoki ngā hekaheka pērā i te hakeke i ngā kiko o te rākau mate. Mā konei ka pirau te rākau, ka hoki atu ōna taiora ki te whenua. Ka kainga ngā hekaheka e te pēpeke. Ā, arā ētahi pēpeke ka kainga e te hekaheka, pērā i te āwheto! Arā anō ētahi hekaheka pērā i te pūtawa ka kai i te rākau ora, ā, ka ora tonu te rākau. He maha ngā painga o ēnei hekaheka i te wā ki ngā tūpuna.

    Kai mā te kererū

    Ko te tikanga i kite ō tātou tūpuna i te Cyttaria hekaheka nei I ngā ngahere tawai i te kōanga, i a rātou e mahi kereru ana. Ka tipu te hanga porotaka nei ki ngā manga o te tawai, me te aha, ka hē te āhua o te tipu o te rākau, ka puta ētahi pukuwhenewhene ki tōna mata. Ā, i te kōanga, ka tipu ake ngā ropihua maha o te hekaheka nei ki aua pukuwhenewhene. He rite te hanga ki tō te poi haupōro. He whakaputa pua atua ngā ropihua, ā, ka riro anō mā te hau ngā pua e kawe haere ki te kimi kāinga hou. He tino kai tēnei nā te kererū, nō reira tērā tonu pea ko te kererū anō tētahi kaitītari i te hekaheka nei. Kāore e mōhiotia ana te ingoa Māori mō te whānau nei, o Cyttaria. Me ui atu pea ō kaumātua, me he ingoa Māori i rongo rā rātou e whakahuatia ana mō te hanga nei. I Amerika ki te Tonga, mai rā anō he kohikohi tā ngā tāngata whenua i ētahi hekaheka Cyttaria o reira hei kai mā rātou.

    He mahi anō tā ngā hekaheka i ngā kawenga o waho o te wao a Tāne – i te kāinga, i te hōhipera, i ngā mahi ahuwhenua, i ngā māra huarākau, i ngā māra huawhenua. Hei tauira, ko tētahi tino hekaheka i te kāinga, ko te īhi (he hekaheka tino moroiti, he hekaheka pūtau tahi) hei whakapiki i te parāoa. Ā, ko tētahi tino tohu o te kai kua kino, ko te tupu o te puruhekaheka ki tōna mata. 

    Ā, kei wareware, he kai anō ētahi hekaheka. He maha ngā momo harore pai hei kai ka whakatupuria ki te māra harore, ka hokona ki te hunga hiahia kai harore. He wā anō ka tipu ake he harore i ngā pātiki o te hunga ahuwhenua, ka āhei te tangata te kohi harore māna i reira. Ko te māmaiti anō tētahi kai e paingia ana e te tokomaha hei pani ki te parāoa, ko te īhi tētahi o ngā kai o roto. Waihoki ina pāngia koe e te mate, tērā pea he rongoā hekaheka te mea ka tohua e te tākuta hei rongoā i tō mate, arā, he rongoā paturopi, he antibiotic. Ko te hekaheka te takenga mai o te rongoā paturopi tuatahi. Pērā anō i te tangata, ka mahi te hekaheka ki te pare atu i te huakita. Nō reira kua whakamahia ētahi matū i pūtakea mai i te hekaheka i roto i ā tātou pakanga ki ngā huakita kino.

    Tēnei mea te penicillin

    I te tau 1928, ka tūpono kite a Alexander Fleming, he mea tāhawahawa tētahi papa huakita e āta mātakihia ana e ia, he hōpuru parāoa te kaitāhawahawa. Nā tērā kitenga ōna i te hemonga o te huakita i te hōpurupuru e karapoti ana i a ia, ko te aranga ake o te penicillin. “Nō taku ohonga ake i te atatū i te 28 o Hepetema 1928, kīhai au i paku mōhio ka rerekē katoa i a au te ao rongoā, nā runga i taku whakaara ake i te rongoā paturopi tuatahi o te ao, te patu huakita tuatahi o te ao.” Nō muri ka tuhi a Fleming, “engari koirā tonu taku mahi”. Neke atu i te 10 tau e rangahaua ana e te huhua o ngā kāhui tohunga pūtaiao kia puta he penicillin pai nei, me te rahi e tika ana. Engari kāore i roa i muri mai, ka kīia he rongoā merekara. 

    He paturopi māori te penicillin ka whakaputaina e te hekaheka hei ārai atu i te urutomo a te huakita. Mai i te kitenga tuatahitanga o te penicillin, he maha ngā momo rongoā paturopi kua kitea, e takea mai ana i ngā momo hekaheka rerekē. I te tupu haeretanga o te kaha o ngā moroiti ki te ātete i ngā rongoā paturopi, kua anga ngā tohunga pūtaiao ki ētahi atu momo hekaheka hei mahi rongoā paturopi hou.  

    Ētahi hekaheka kāore i pai ki te tangata

    Heoi anō, arā anō ētahi hekaheka i Aotearoa kāore e pīrangitia e te tangata. I tae tahi mai pea ēnei me ngā tūpuna, i te taha rānei o ngā Pākehā tuatahi, i tae matahuna mai rānei i runga, i roto i ngā tipu, i ngā oneone rānei kua kawea mai i whenua kē. Pērā anō i ngā taru kino me ngā mea oreore kino, he hekaheka anō ka whakararu i te taiao, i te tangata. Koinei te take he tūtei kei ngā taunga waka rere, waka moana, e mahi ana ki te haukoti i te uru mai o ētahi hekaheka kino hou ki Aotearoa. Koinei hoki te take kāore e whakaaetia te mau huarākau mai i roto i ngā pēke i te rerenga mai ki Aotearoa, kāore rānei e pai mēnā he oneone e mau ana ki ngā hū me ngā titi here tēneti. E tika ana kia āta hāpaingia te haumaru-koiora i ngā taunga waka rere, waka moana, he mea nui ki te tangata whenua – ki ngā mātua, ki ngā tamariki, hei tiaki anō i a Tāne-mahuta. 

    Ko ētahi o ngā hekaheka kino, ko ērā e ngaua ai ngā kai o te māra, o te taiao e te mate. Ko te kūmara me te taewa ētahi tino kai ka kino i te noho mai o te hekaheka tuku mate ki te oneone. Ka kai hoki ēnei hekaheka I te kūmara, i te taewa, e pōpopo ai ēnei kai. Mēnā kua pokea te māra e tētahi o ēnei hekaheka, kotahi noa te rongoā, ko te whakamutu i te whakatupu i aua kai ki aua whenua, me whakatupu kē he kai kāore e patua e aua hekaheka.

    Kāore te harore e kīia he pirinoa kino i a ia i te poho o Tāne, engari arā ētahi kai o tāwāhi kua kawea mai hei āta whakatipu, kua raru, kua wheori i te harore. Tērā ka pokea ngā punua paina e te harore ki te whakatōkia ki te whenua he ngahere māori i reira i mua, ā, tērā e mate aua punua rākau. I mate hoki i te harore ētahi o ngā huakiwi i whakatōkia tuatahitia ki Aotearoa – i ngaua e te harore ngā pakiaka o ngā huakiwi e pātata ana ki ngā pāhauhau paina kua ngaua ō rātou nā pakiaka e te harore. I urutomo atu ngā pua atua o te harore ki ngā pūtake o ngā paina o te pāhauhau i tuaina, ā, atu i reira ka toro atu mā ngā pakiaka mate o aua rākau ki ngā pakiaka ora o ngā huakiwi.

    Ko ētahi atu tahumaero tipu ko te hekaheka te pūtake, ko te mate Dutch Elm ka ki te elm, ko te pirau parauri ka ki te pītiti, me te hōpuru hungahunga ka ki te waina. 

    Ko tētahi momo e kaha āwangawangatia ana, ko te waikura myrtle i kawea mai ki Aotearoa i Ahitereiria i ētahi hau pūkerikeri o te tau 2017. Ko te raru ia, e toro haere ana i ngā rākau maha o te whānau myrtle, tae atu ki te rākau ātaahua nei, ki te pōhutukawa. 

    Arā hoki ētahi hekaheka koia te pūtakenga o ētahi tahumaero ka ki a tātou, te tangata. Ko te mateīhi, ko te waewae kaiaka me te muna hei tauira. 

    He aha i pirau ai, i pōpopo ai te rākau?

    Ina whati he manga, ka taka ki te papa, kāore e roa ka muia te rākau mate e te mahi a te hanga ora. He maha tonu ngā momo hekaheka ka kai haere i te rākau. He pua atua pea e whakaangi ana i te hau takiwā, ka tau atu ki te rākau, ka tipu ake rānei i te oneone, kei roto kē rānei i te rākau i te wā e ora ana. Ka kai haere te hekaheka i ngā pūtau o te rākau, ka ngohe haere te kiko o te rākau. Ko tēnei ngohe haere, he pirau, he pōpopo ki a tātou. Tērā anō a ngāi pepeke ka kai haere i ngā rākau kua ngohe haere, kua pōpopo haere, ka kai anō i ngā hekaheka e mau mai ana ki roto. Ka hia tau pea te rākau nei e noho ana hei oranga mō ētahi atu, tae noa ki te wā ka pau ōna kiko i a hekaheka mā, i a ngokingoki mā. Ko te wāhanga iti ōna e toe ana, ka hoki atu ki ngā oneone o Tāne, hei whakatupu rākau hou ā tōna wā.

    ‘Tēnei taku waka te waiho hei poupou harore’: E mea ana tēnei whakataukī ‘kua riro taku waka hei kai mā te harore’, ā, e kōrero ana mō te wāhi nui ki te harore i roto i ngā mahi whakapopo, whakapirau rākau.

    Ka ngaro atu ngā rau o ngā tini rākau ki hea?

    Pērā anō i te kiko o te rākau, ka kai hoki te hekaheka me te pepeke i ngā rau kua taka ki te papa. Me te aha, ka pōpopo, ka huri anō hei oneone, e hoki ai ngā kai o roto i te rākau i ōna wā ki te oneone. E kitea ana i konei te pono o te kōrero, o ngā tini a Tāne, kāore i tua atu i ngā hekaheka mō te hangarua.

    Te āhua o te pūtaiao

    He maha ngā kitenga pūtaiao whakahirahira, pērā te kitenga o Alexander Fleming i te penicillin, i hua ake i te mātakitanga o tētahi āhuatanga pokerehū. Nā taua āhuatanga pokerehū, kua huri te tohunga pūtaiao he ahunga kē. Mā te mātaki, mā te whakaaro māhorahora, mā te hinengaro pakirehua, tērā pea ka puta ake ko angitū i a pokerehū. 

    He kōrero anō e hāngai ana

    Ngā harore patu moroiti kino
    Tērā tētahi kāhui rangahau o Aotearoa kua whakaatu mai arā ētahi momo harore pai hei kai (e rima, he harore māori i kohia i ngā ngāhere me ngā papa rāhui o Aotearoa), he āhuatanga patu huakita, patu ōhikitanga ō aua harore. Anei tētahi whakarāpotototanga o tā rātou mahi rangahau: Antibacterial mushrooms.

    Ngā rangahautanga patu hekaheka kino

    Kei te Pokapū nei ētahi rauemi e arotahi ana ki ngā hekaheka kāore e pai ki te tangata me ngā mahi rangahau e kawea ana hei pēhi i aua hekaheka. Anei ētahi He kaka harakeke patu hekaheka, Te rokiroki taonga harakeke me He rongoā koiora mō ngā papa-rākau.   

    Te Tohutoro

    Brougham, A.E. & Reed, A.W. (revised by Karetu, T.S.) 1987. Māori Proverbs. Reed Methuen, Auckland. 

    He whakamihi

    I hua ake tēnei rauemi i tētahi aratohu pūtaiao mā ngā kaiako, ko Ngā Hekaheka o Aotearoa te ingoa. I tuhia te aratohu nei e Tākuta Peter Buchanan, o Manaaki Whenua; Tākuta Georgina Stewart, o Te Kura Mātauranga, Te Whare Wānanga o AUT; me Hēni Jacob. He mea tuhi ngā rauemi nei i runga i te aro nui ki te titiro a te Māori ki ēnei āhuatanga.

    Tēnei te mihi a te Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao ki a Manaaki Whenua me ngā kaituhi kua whakaae nei, kua āwhina nei anō hoki i te whakawhitinga o ngā kōrero nei hei rauemi ipurangi. E taea ana tētahi tauira whitihiko o te Aratohu mā te Pouako te tiki atu i Huia Publishers

     

      Published 21 November 2018 Referencing Hub articles