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    He whānui te mōhio o ngā tūpuna ki ngā hekaheka me ngā tini painga o ētahi. Ko ētahi he kai, ko ētahi he rongoā, ko ētahi hei tā moko, ko ētahi hei tahu ahi.

    Te hekaheka ka whakamahia mō te tā moko

    He maha ngā tikanga i whāia e ngā tūpuna hei hoatu tae ki te moko. Ko te pango tētahi o ngā tino tae i roto i ēnei mahi, ā, ko te hekaheka nei, ko te āwheto, tētahi o ngā puna waingārahu. He uaua te kitea o te āwheto i ēnei rā. Engari i mōhio ō tātou tūpuna ko hea te kāinga o te āwheto, i kaha anō hoki tā rātou kohi āwheto. Hei whakapango, ka mea kia kainga ngā āwheto e te ahi. Ina tahuna, ka mangu, ka taea hoki te kauoro kia oti mai he hungahunga pango. Ka whakaranua tēnei paura pango ki te hinu o te manu, kātahi anō ka waingārahu, ka rite mō te tā moko.

    He rerekē noa atu te āwheto i te harore, he rerekē hoki i ērā atu momo hekaheka katoa o te ao o ngā tūpuna. He ngārara tāna kai, ka mutu, e rua noa ngā momo ngārara ka kainga e ia – ko ngā anuhe o ētahi pūrerehua māori e rua. I konei, ka ara ake pea te pātai, ki te kore e taea e te āwheto te nekeneke haere, me pēhea e toroa ai e ia ērā momo anuhe e rua? He mea tūpono noa. Ka mutu, mehemea ko koe te anuhe, he tūpono kino! Ka whakaputaina e te āwheto ngā pua atua manomano, mei kore e kainga tētahi e te anuhe – ka kainga tahitia pea me ētahi rau. Tērā rānei ka piri noa tētahi o ngā pua atua ki te tinana o te anuhe. Te āhua nei he mōhio te awheto mehemea kua tau atu ia ki te momo anuhe koia tōna oranga, i te mea ka tīmata i reira tana tupu, ko te anuhe tana pātaka kai. Kei te mōhio pea koe ka ahatia rā te anuhe!

    Ko tēnei momo anuhe, he noho ki tōna anō rua i te oneone i ngā wā kāore ia i te kai. Ina noho ia ki te rua nei, ko tōna upoko kei runga, ko te tou kei raro. Te āhua nei ka hoki anō ia ki tōna rua i ngā wā e māuiui ana. Kia kai a āwheto i te tinana o te anuhe, kāore te tinana e ngohe pērā i te kiko o te rākau ka pirau. Ka mārō kē – he āhua rite ki ngā tūpāpaku o nehe i Ihipa i whakamarokehia, ka mārō. Hei whakaputa i ōna pua atua, me toro te hekaheka ki waho o te tinana o te anuhe. Ka tukuna ōna pua atua kia toro ki runga ake o te mata o te whenua. He mōhio anō te āwheto ko te ara tukutata ki te mata o te whenua, ko te ahunga whakarunga atu i te upoko o te anuhe. Ka tīmata i reira tana tipu, tana kake ki runga. Oti mai ana he ropihua torotika, rite ki te rākau iti te hanga, ka puta ake i te oneone ki te ao mārama. I te pito whakarunga, ka tipu he puta atua.

    Nō reira, he aha ngā tohu mēnā kei te kimi āwheto koe? Ko tētahi ‘rākau’ parauri iti e tipu ana i te oneone, he āhua koi tōna pito. Ki te tau te waimarie ki a koe, ka kitea tētahi, āta karia te oneone. Te tikanga kei reira te tinana mārō o te anuhe i mate rā i te ngau a āwheto. I kohia ko ngā anuhe me ngā ropihua o ngā āwheto i ngā rā o nehe. Engari ko te mea whakamīharo, i pēhea i kitea ai te maha ka mātua hiahiatia hei mahi waingārahu mō te tā moko?

    Ka tipu ake te ropihua o te āwheto i tētahi tukanga māori e hono tahi ai te hekaheka me te anuhe. Kua rangahaua ētahi huarahi hei whakatipu horihori i te ropihua, engari taka mai ki tēnei wā, kua pūhore ēnā mahi. Kua nui ngā mahi i tāwāhi ki te whakatipu horihori i tētahi hekaheka āhua rite ki te āwheto, he nui tōna uara taha moni, ko ngā whenua pātītī i ngā maunga o ngā Himalaya me Tibet tōna kāinga tūturu, engari kua pūhore anō ērā mahi. He tuku a Ophiocordyceps sinensis i āna ropihua ki ngā anuhe o te ‘pūrerehua kēhua’. Ka ‘hauhakea’ ngā anuhe tini ngerongero (ko tōna 82 tana i te tau) e te iwi kāinga, hei hoko atu ki Haina mō te mahi rongoā māori. Ko te mate, ka mimiti, ka whatungarongaro tēnei puna anuhe, inā te nui e hauhakea ana ia tau. I te mimiti haeretanga o te puna nei i ngā tau, kua noho koia tētahi o ngā rawa koiora māori inati katoa te utu, puta noa i te ao. Ko te utu toharite hei hoko i te mea nei i te toa, kei te takiwā o te $45,000 ki te 90,000 – tāra Merikana nei – mō te kirokaramu kotahi. E uaratia ana, e araara ana tōna whakakaha ake i te hiahia ki te ai, me tōna whakapiki i te ora o te tangata. Nō konā, ko te tahuri a ētahi ki te tirotiro i ētahi atu momo Ophiocordyceps, pērā i te āwheto. Engari ko ngā kitenga mō te āwheto ā mohoa noa nei, kāore i tēnei o ngā huānga kaitā o te puninga Ophiocordyceps ngā matū ngau-koiora e arumia ana.

    Te hekaheka hei pupuri i te ahi

    Noho ai, kai ai te pūtawa i te kiko o ngā tawai ora i te wao a Tāne. Ko ōna ropihua, he toro whakawaho i te kahiwi, i te ikeiketanga o te rākau. Ka tere tonu te tipu, ka tipu hoki kia rahi. Engari ka piri ki te rākau mō ētahi wiki noa, mō ētahi marama noa rānei, kātahi ka ruha, ka taka ki te papa. Ina kohia i te papa, me mātua whakamaroke i mua i te whakamahi.

    Ko tētahi tino āhuatanga o te pūtawa, ko tōna pai mō te tahu ahi – i pai hei tutungi i te ahi, hei kawe anō i te ahi ki wāhi kē. Ina tahuna, ka roa e popō ana, kāore e mura noa ake. Nō reira kua pai te tanu i te awatea, me te tutungi anō i te pō, kua pai rānei te mau haere ki tōna wāhi i hiahiatia ai. He pai anō hei rama i te pō, i te mea ka roa e kā ana. Kei Ahitereiria anō te pūtawa, waihoki i whakamahia e ngā tāngata whenua o reira hei tahu ahi, pērā tonu i te Māori.

    I te taha rongoā, he mea tapahi te pūtawa ki ōna anō ngakunga roa, ngakunga tāwariwari, ā, ka whakapiria atu ēnei hei karapoti i ngā tūnga. Ka tapahia he kōhao rahi ake i te tūnga, ā, ka whakamaua atu te pūtawa hei pare ka āta tiaki i te tūnga.

    Te mahi taonga whakapaipai ki te rākau

    He rākau tino whaitake te tōtara. He rākau pai mō te tārai waka, hei whakairo anō. Ko te kupu kaikākā, e whakaahua ana i te taikākā o te tōtara kua tino roa e tū ana, kua kaumātua, kua pirau haere i te ngau a tētahi momo hekaheka. Ko te Inonotus lloydii te ingoa Rātini o te hekaheka nei, ka pirau i a ia ētahi wāhi iti o te rākau, e oti mai ai he tauira e hiahiatia e te kaiwhakairo. Ko te matakupenga te ingoa mō te tōtara kua pēnei tōna āhua. Ka iti ake te kaha o te rākau i tēnei pirau, nō reira kāore i tino pai hei hanga waka, hei hanga whare rānei, engari ka pai tonu hei mahi whakairo, hei tārai taonga, hei hanga pou mō te taiapa. Ina whakaputa uri te hekaheka, ka kitea ōna ropihua e toro whakawaho ana i te kahiwi o te tōtara.

    He whakaaro mō ētahi ngohe

    Ngā mātakitanga i te ngahere tawai
    Ina haere anō koe ki tētahi ngahere tawai, tirohia te papa huri katoa i te pūtake o ngā tawai. Tērā pea ka kitea te ropihua o te hekaheka nei, o te pūtawa/puku tawai. He āhua rahi tonu, he mā i te nuinga o te wā, he mākū anō. I āta whakamaroketia i mua i te whakamahi hei taonga tahu ahi.

    I te marae, i te whare taonga rānei
    Kimihia ētahi tauira o te tōtara kua whakairohia (i te wharenui pea), he matakupenga tōna āhua. Nā tētahi hekaheka whakapirau i te kiko o te rākau i te wā e ora ana i pērā ai tōna āhua. Ki ōu nā whakaaro, he whakanikoniko tā te kaikākā i te āhua o te rākau, he pēhea kē rānei?

    He patapatai mō te hekaheka
    I tēnei patapatai tuihono, ā-pepa rānei, ka pai te whakamātau a te ākonga i tōna mōhio ki Ngā mātauranga me te whakamahi a te Māori i ngā hekaheka.

    He kōrero anō e hāngai ana

    Te rangahau i te mātauranga Māori
    I oti i a Tākuta Rebekah Fuller (o Te Rarawa) tōna tohu kauati, ko ngā mātauranga tūturu o te Māori e ana ki ngā hekaheka o Aotearoa te kaupapa. Tēnā whakarongo mai ki ngā rangahau a Rebekah mō te hekaheka.

    He whakamihi

    I hua ake tēnei rauemi i tētahi aratohu pūtaiao mā ngā kaiako, ko Ngā Hekaheka o Aotearoa te ingoa. I tuhia te aratohu nei e Tākuta Peter Buchanan, o Manaaki Whenua; Tākuta Georgina Stewart, o Te Kura Mātauranga, Te Whare Wānanga o AUT; me Hēni Jacob. He mea tuhi ngā rauemi nei i runga i te aro nui ki te titiro a te Māori ki ēnei āhuatanga.

    Tēnei te mihi a te Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao ki a Manaaki Whenua me ngā kaituhi kua whakaae nei, kua āwhina nei anō hoki i te whakawhitinga o ngā kōrero nei hei rauemi ipurangi. E taea ana tētahi tauira whitihiko o te Aratohu mā te Pouako te tiki atu i Huia Publishers

     

      Published 21 November 2018 Referencing Hub articles