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    Tūtaki mai ki ētahi o ngā ika taketake wai māori o Aotearoa, ā, ākona hoki ētahi kōrero mō ngā ika nei me ngā puni kaiao e pai nei rātou.

    Neke atu i te 54 ngā momo ika taketake, ā, kei te takiwā o te 20 ngā momo ika tauhou kei ngā kōawa, kei ngā roto, kei ngā awa, kei ngā repo hoki o Aotearoa. Me uaua kē ka kitea te nuinga o ngā ika taketake, i te mea he ririki, he kirihuna, he kaha ki te huna, ka noho hoki ngā ika i ngā wāhi pāmamao, ka puta noa i te pō, ā, i te awatea ka huna ki raro kōhatu, ki raro rānei i ngā rākau taumarumaru. He onge hoki ngā ika taketake – ko tētahi hautoru kua tata korehāhā, kotahi te momo kua korehāhā kē, arā, ko te upokororo (Prototroctes oxyrhynchus).

    I tēnei ngohe, pāwhiringia te ingoa o tētahi ika, o tētahi rānagi ika rānei e ako ai koe i ētahi kōrero.

    E ako ai koe i ētahi o ngā karangatanga i tēnei ngohe, tirohia te rauemi – Ngā karangatanga matua mō te wai māori me ngā ika wai māori.

    He whakamānawa

    Kua whakahāngaitia tēnei raeumi i ngā tikiake o Kaingākau ana ki te ika taketake i mahia mai e NZ Landcare Trust. E mihi nei te te Pokapū Ako Pūtaiao ki a NZ Landcare Trust i tana āwhina mai ki te whakahāngai i tēnei mahi, ā, e mihi ana anō ki a NIWA i ōna mōhiotanga me ngā kōrero i tāpirihia mai.

    I tīkina ētahi atu kōrero i te ipurangi, i Te Papa Atawhai, waihoki, e whakamahia ana i raro i te mana o te raihana – Creative Commons 4.0.

    Tuhinga

    Tuna

    E toru ngā momo tuna kei Aotearoa – ko te tuna heke, ko te tuna ōrea me te tunga kōtingotingo o Ahitereiria (Anguilla reinhardtii) i tere noa mai ki Aotearoa e 25 tau ki muri.

    He kai nui te tuna nā te Māori, ā, i mua i ara ake te pakanga mō te tuna te take. I mau te tuna i te hīnaki, i te tuna, i te matarau, i te kōrapa, i te toi, i te kōumu, i te ringaringa noa iho rānei. Neke atu i te 100 ngā ingoa o te Māori mō ngā momo tuna e toru kei Aotearoa.

    Pēnei i ētahi ika ririki, ka tohe hoki ngā tuna ki te haere i te moana ki te wai māori, i te wai māori ki te moana ki te whakatutuki i te huringa ā-oranga.

    Ngā pūtaiao hou: I tēnei ataata ka whakamārama a Erina i ngā hua inanaga ka ‘tere’ whakarunga i te au. Ināianei, e whakapono ana te ao pūtaiao kāore ngā hua e tere noa, engari he āheinga kaukau anō ō ngā hua e tae ai rātou ki te wāhi e haere ana rātou. He pērā te āhua o te pūtaiao, me whakaaro anō ō tātou huatau, mātauranga anō hoki.

    Te huringa ā-oranga o te tuna

    Tuhinga

    Nā Erina Watene-Rawiri

    Ko ngā momo taonga, he momo e whakaaro nuitia ana e te Māori.

    He momo taonga te tuna, kua whakamahia te tuna e te Māori i roto i ngā whakatupuranga huhua.

    He uaua te huringa ā-oranga o te tuna. Ka noho te tuna i te moana mō tētahi wā me te wai māori mō tētahi wā. Ki te tirohia ngā pakeke, ka noho ērā i ngā kōawa me ngā roto, ā, kia rite rā anō ki te whakaputa hua, kātahi ngā tuna huhua ka heke ki te moana. Ka tere ngā tuna mō ngā kiromita rua mano neke atu, e ahu atu ana ki Tonga, ki reira whakaputa hua ai i ngā wai āhua hōhonu.

    Ka rewa ngā hua ki te karetai, ki reira puta mai ai ngā torongū meroiti noa iho nei, he kōataata te hanga, e rite nei te āhua ki te rau, e kīia ana ēnei he leptocephali. Ka pōteretere mai ngā leptocephali ki Aotearoa i ngā au o te moana, ā, i mua tata i te terenga atu ki ngā awa, ka huri ēnei hei inanga. He punua tuna kōataata nei te inanga, ka tere ēnei i te awa, ā, i te terenga i te awa, ka pango haere ngā inanga. Ka huri ngā punua tuna hei tuna ririki. Ka noho ēnei ki te wai māori mō te wā roa – mai i te 20 tau ki te 60 tau ki te 100 tau i mua i te pakeketanga, ā, kātahi ngā tuna ka hoki ki te moana ki te whakaputa hua anō. Ka mate ngā pakeke i te whakaputanga o ngā hua, ko ngā hua anahe ka puta mai

    He whakamānawa: © University of Waikato. Tēnā, tirohia ngā mihi kei te ataata e  kitea ai ngā whakamānawa.

    Tuna ōrea

    Noho ai te ōrea (Anguilla dieffenbachia) i ngā momo wai katoa, kōawa mai, awa nui mai, roto tuawhenua mai, roto taha moana mai, wahapū mātaitai mai, hāpua mai.

    Ka roa ake i te 2 mita te roa o ngā ōrea, ā, ka roa ake pea i te 100 tau te kaumātua! Heoi, tē tino mōhiotia ngā āhuatanga katoa o tōna huringa ā-oranga. Whakaputa hua ai ngā ōrea i te mutunga o te huringa ā-oranga, ā, kotahi noa iho te wā ka pēnei. I te Ngahuru, haere ai ngā tuna pakeke i ngā awa me ngā kōawa ki te moana. E whakapae ana ngā kaipūtaiao, kei te takiwā o Tonga ngā wāhi whakaputa hua, engari, kāore anō kia kitea te whakaputanga o ngā hua. Nāte mea he momo tata korehāhā tēnei kua whakaitihia te rahi o ngā tuna e āhei ana te hī, waihoki, kua rāhuitia te rahi o te tinana o ngā tuna e āhei ana te hī hei tiaki i ngā uwha.

    Kāore anō te ōrea kia aromatawaitia mō te IUCN Red List, engari e mea ana te New Zealand Threat Classification System, ‘kia mataara – e heke haere ana.’

    He whakamānawa: E wātea tūmatawhānui ana

    Ika kitakita

    Kitea ai ngā Ika kitakita (Galaxias divergens) kua tata te korehāhā i ngā wāhi pāpaku, oruoru hoki o ngā awa nui, i ngā wāhi kirikiri o ngā wāhanga oruoru o ngā awa iti kei ngā rauwiringa wai. Me nui te marumaru, me ngā poro rākau, toka rānei i te wai. Ko āna tino kai, ko ngā torongū piriwai, namupoto anō hoki.

    I Te Ika-a-Māui, ka noho ngā Ika kitakita i te hikuwai o te awa o Waihou, e tata ana ki Putaruru; i ētahi wāhi hoki kei te awa o Rangaitāiki, e tata ana ki Galatea; i Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Upoko o Te Ika-a-Māui anō hoki. I Te Waipounamu, kitea ai ngā ika rikiriki i Te Tauihu-o-Te-Waka-a-Māui, i Te Tai Poutini hoki, tae noa ki te awa o Hokitika.

    He whakamānawa ki a Bob McDowall

    Kōpūtea

    E whitu ngā momo kōpūtea wai māori kei Aotearoa, nō te whānau Eleotridae:

    • Tarndale bully (Gobiomorphus alpinus)
    • pakoko (Gobiomorphus basalis)
    • upland bully (Gobiomorphus breviceps)
    • tīpokopoko (Gobiomorphus cotidianus)
    • toitoi (Gobiomorphus gobioides)
    • kōpūtea piha pukepoto (Gobiomorphus hubbsi)
    • kōpūtea pakikau kura (Gobiomorphus huttoni).

    He uaua te whakawehe i te nuinga o ngā momo, nō reira me mātua whakamahi e ngā kaipūtaiao ngā karu whakarahi.

    Kitea ai ngā kōpūtea i ngā puni kaiao huhua, pēnei i ngā kōawa, ngā awa me ngā roto. O ngā momo e whitu, e toru ngā momo whakawhitiwhiti wai (arā, te bluegill, te redfin me ngā giant bullies), e toru anō ngā momo kāore e whakawhitiwhiti wai (arā, te Cran’s, te upland me te Tarndale bullies). Ko te kōpūtea ka kitea nuitia ngā mea e rua.

    He pai te kirihuna o ngā kōpūtea hei huna i a rātou i te one me ngā toka, engari ka kitea e teretere ana i ngā wāhi pāpaku i te ao, i te pō anō hoki.

    Ko te rerekē o tēnei momo i te ika ririki, kāore anō kia raru i te tangata, nā konei e kitea whānuitia ana, e mātotoru ana hoki. Kotahi noa iho te momo kei te kīia kua tata te korehāhā. E ai ki te New Zealand Threat Classification System, kua tohua te ‘Tarndale bully’ ki te kōrero ‘kia mataara – kāore e tino kitea ana’, nō te mea, e kitea noatia ana i ētahi pūroto ruarua noa iho nei i te hikuwai o te awa o Clarence me te awa o Wairau, i Te Tauihu-o-Te-Waka-a-Māui. Ko te tōpūtanga o te rohe e noho nei ēnei ika, ko te 0.59 km2. Heoi anō, i te rārangi IUCN, kāore he tino āwangawanga mō ngā ika nei, nā te noho tawhiti rawa, tuawhenura rawa e whakaarotia ana he āhuatanga pai tēnā mō ngā ika nei.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen, Creative Commons 4.0

    Kōkopu kauaepoto

    He ika motuhake tēnei ki Aotearoa. He onge, he kaha ki te huna, me uaua kē ka kitea. He poto te kauae o te ika nei, ā, e whakapae ana ngā kaipūtaiao, i puta ai tēnā hei waku i ngā ngārara nohowai i ngā toka.

    Whakaputa hua ai ngā kōkopu katoa ki ngā rau me ngā otaota i runga ake i ngā kōawa i te tai pari. Ka rewa ngā torongū kua paopao mai ki te moana, ka noho, ka tupu ki reira i te hōtoke. Ka hoki mai ki uta hei inanga i te kōanga. Heoi anō, e āhei ana hoki ngā momo kōkopu katoa ki te noho ki roto i te wai māori anahe me te whakatutuki i te huringa ā-oranga, e kīia ana tēnei, ko te noho pūroto. I tēnei wā, kotahi anahe te rāngai kōkopu kauaepoto noho pūroto kua kitea (ki Mangatāwhiri), engari, mō ngā momo pēnei i te kōkopu nui, i te kōkopu taiwhara me te kōaro, he maha ngā momo noho pūroto puta noa i te motu.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen, Creative Commons 4.0

    Tīpokopoko

    Kitea ai te tīpokopoko (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) i ngā wāhi katoa o Aotearoa. Noho ai ēnei ki ngā awa me ngā kōawa taha moana, me ngā pūroto. I ngā awa me ngā kōawa, noho ai ēnei ki ngā awa e pōturi ana te rere o te wai, kua kore rānei e rere. He kai matua tēnei mā ētahi atu momo ika, pēnei i te tuna.

    Whakaputaina ai ngā hua ki te taha whakararo o ngā papa mārō (pēnei i te rākau me te toka) ki ngā roto me ngā awa, ā, ka tiakina ngā hua e ngā tāne.

    He whakamānawa ki a Mike Dickinson, Creative Commons 4.0

    Kōpūtea pakikau-kura

    He ika whakawhitiwhiti wai te kōpūtea pakikau-kura (Gobiomorphus huttoni), ā, e kore tēnei momo ika e noho i ngā wai pūroto pēnei i te roto. Noho ai ēnei ki te taha moana, ahakoa tonu he ika tau ki te piki (kua kitea ētahi rāngai i runga ake i ētahi hīrere e 5 mita te teitei.)

    Ka puta ngā hua i roto i te wai māori, ā, i muri mai i te paopaotanga, ka kāhakina ngā torongū ki tai. Ka uru ngā punua ki te wai māori i te puna, ā, ka pakeke i roto i ngā tau e 2.

    Noho ai ngā kōpūtea pakikau-kura ki ngā torohanga me ngā wai oruoru o ngā kōawa e kī ana i te toka, ā, ko tana kai matua ko te piriwai me te torongū o te naonao. Nā te kaha whirinaki o tēnei momo ika ki tēnei tūmomo puni kaiao i kaha ake ai te noho mōrearea ōna i ngā pānga o te kenepuru ki te wai, tēnā i ētahi atu momo ika.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen, Creative Commons 4.0

    Kōkopu taiwhara

    Noho ai ngā kōkopu taiwhara (Galaxias fasciatus) i ngā puna e tino maru ana i ngā tauwharenga tahatika, i ngā poro rākau me ngā toka. Kitea ai ngā momo ika nei i ngā hōpua, i ngā tahatika rānei kua horo i raro i te wai. Pēnei i te kōkopu nui, ka karangahia tēnei e ētahi he taraute māori, he taraute taketake rānei.

    E tino rata ana ngā ika nei ki te wai mahana, arā, kia 12-18°C te paemahana, ā, ka rongo rātou i ngā pānga o ngā parahanga, pēnei i te haukini e kaha kitea ana i ngā para kararehe pāmu, me ngā wai para kāore i tika te whakatikahia.

    Whakaputa hua ai ngā kōkopu taiwhara i runga i ngā rau, i ngā otaota kei runga ake i ngā kōawa i te paringa o te wai. Ka rewa ngā torongū kua paopao ki te moana, ka tupu mai i reira i te hōtoke, kātahi ka hoki mai hei inanga i te kōanga. Heoi anō, ka noho pūroto ētahi rāngai, ki reira whakatutuki ai i te huringa ā-oranga, e kīia ana tēnei ko te noho pūroto. He maha ngā rāngai kōkopu taiwhara noho pūroto puta noa i te motu.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen

    Papangoko

    Ko te papangoko (Cheimarrichthys fosteri) anahe te momo kotahi nō te whānau Cheimarrichthyidae kei te ao!

    Kitea ai te papangoko i ngā awa e tere nei te rere o te wai, ā, he kirikiri te whaiawa. Noho ai tēnei momo ika i ngā wāhi e tere nei te rere o te wai, pēnei i ngā wai oruoru, i ngā tāheke anō hoki. Ehara i te mea ka tohe tēnei momo ika i te ia o te wai, engari ka noho kē i waenganui, i raro rānei i te kirikiri. Ka puta ngā papangoko i ngā tāheke i te pō ki te rapu kai.

    Kua tino waia te papangoko ki tēnei momo puni kaiao, he ūpoko parehe tōna, he pakihawa nui hoki ōna hei whakaū i a ia ki te whaiawa, waihoki, ko ōna karu kei runga ake i tōna upoko, kua hawa hoki tōna waha hei āwhina i a ia ki te kai i tōna puni kaiao.

    Pēnei i te nuinga o ngā ika taketake, ka whakawhiti te papangoko i te moana me te wai māori, he wāhanga tēnei nō tōna huringa ā-oranga. Ahakoa kāore anō kia kitea ngā wāhi whakaputa hua, e whakapaetia ana ka heke ngātahi ngā papangoko toa me ngā papangoko uwha i ngā puni kaiao wai māori ki te whakaputa hua, ā, ka heke ngā torongū ki te moana, kātahi ka hoki mai ngā punua ki te wai māori.

    Kei te rārangi IUCN ngā papangoko me te kōmaka e kīia ana, ‘e noho pānekeneke ana.’ Ko te take i pēnei ai, he tino motuhake te puni kaiao o tēnei momo ika; me mātao, me nui te hāora o te wai, me tere hoki te wai. Ka pāngia ia e ngā mahi keri whenua, ngā parahanga i te wai me te mahana haere o te ao. He pānga kino hoki ō te waipara, nō te mea me noho ngā papangoko ki ngā wai kirikiri, ā, kāore e tino kitea ana te kirikiri i ngā arawai kei reira te waipara.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen, Creative Commons 4.0

    Waikaka

    Ko ngā momo waikaka e rima kei Aotearoa, ko:

    • kōwaro (Neochanna burrowsius)
    • waikaka parauri (Neochanna apoda)
    • waikaka mangu (Neochanna diversus)
    • waikaka nō te raki (Neochanna heleios)

    Ahakoa te ingoa ki te reo Pākehā, arā te ‘mudfish’, me noho te ika nei ki te wai mā, ā, mā te ika nei e tohu mai te hauora o te taiao. Kitea ai ngā waikaka ki ngā koiora pūrepo, pēnei i ngā repo, ngā pakihi, ngā hōpua kei ngā ngahere reporepo, ngā kōawa me ngā roma e āta haere nei te wai. Hāunga te waikaka o Wharekauri, ka noho tēnei ki ngā tapa o ngā roto rei.

    I te korenga o te 80-90 ōrau o ngā repo o Aotearoa kua ngaro haere ngā puni kaiao, koinei te take matua e mate haere nei tēnei momo ika. He āheinga rerekē tō te waikaka. Ka taea e tēnei ika te noho mō tētahi wā āhua roa nei i waho i te wai, i roto i te puare rākau me te otaota mākū i ngā wā maroke. Nā te āhei o te tinana roa ki te kōwiri ki roto i ngā puare moroiti i taea ai te pēnā, kātahi ka moe mō te raumati, ā, ka hā te tinana mā te kiri mākū. Nā tēnei ka ora te ika i te maroketanga o te manga, o te kōawa, o te hōpua, o te repo hoki.

    E mōrearea ana te noho a tēnei momo ika i te mea e ngaro haere ana tōna puni kaiao. Kei te rārangi IUCN ngā momo e rima o te waikaka, waihoki, e mea ana te rārangi rā kua eke ngā waikaka o Waitaha me Te Taitokerau ki te karangatanga o ‘kei te pari o te rua puta noa i te motu.’

    He whakamānawa: nā Te Papa Atawhai te whakaahua o te waikaka.

    Tuna heke

    Ehara i te mea he motuhake te tuna heke (Anguilla australis) ki Aotearoa nei. Kitea ai ngā tuna heke puta noa i ngā wai whaka-te-tonga o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, i Ahitereiria, i Niu Karetōnia, i te moutere o Norfolk, i te moutere o Lord Howe, i Whītī anō hoki pea. Noho ai ēnei ki ngā whenua raorao, ā, e kore e heke whakarunga i te awa, ki uta rawa rānei pēnei i ngā tuna ōrea. He pai ake ki te tuna heke ngā wai mātaitai mahana o te roto taha moana, o te roto tuawhenua hoki.

    He ika kaikiko tēnei, ka kai te tuna heke i ngā mawhiti, i ngā ika, i ngā poraka me ngā manu iti anō hoki. Ka heke i te wai māori ki te moana ki te whakaputa hua, ā, ka mate hoki i reira. He tau ngā punua ka hoki mai i te moana ki te piki.

    Ko te tuna heke te ika tino manawa rahi o ngā ika taketake. Ka ora tonu rātou i te wera o te wai, i te heke rānei o te hāora o te wai. Nā tērā, ka ora ngā tuna heke i ngā puni kaiao e mate nei ētahi atu ika.

    Ko te rerekētanga o te tuna heke i te tuna ōrea ko te roa o te urutira. He āhua iti iho te tuna heke pakeke.

    He whakamānawa ki a NIWA me Taihoro Nukurangi

    Kōkopu nui

    Karangahia ai te kōkopu nui, he taraute māori, he taraute taketake, ā, ko tēnei te mea kaitā rawa o ngā ika ririki katoa.

    Ahakoa e āhua tau ana te kōkopu nui (Galaxias argenteus) ki te piki, kitea nuitia ai ēnei i te taha moana. Ka noho ēnei i ngā repo, ngā roto me ngā kōawa kei ngā ngahere, ā, e pai ana ki a rātou ngā wāhi ururua. Kitea ai ngā ika nei i ngā hōpua, i ngā tahatika rānei kua horo i raro i te wai.

    Ka āta tupu tēnei ika, ā, ka ora hoki mō ngā tau e 20 neke atu rānei.

    Pēnei i ngā kōkopu me ngā kōaro katoa, ka whakaputa ngā kōkopu nui i ana hua i ngā otaota kei ngā tapa kōawa i te parnga o te tai. Ka rewa atu ngā torongū ki te moana, ka tupu i reira i te wā o te hōtoke, i te kōanga ka hoki rātou ki te hikuwai o te awa hei inanga. Heoi anō, tērā ētahi rāngai ka noho pūroto, ka whakatutuki i ō rātou huringa ā-oranga i te wai māori anahe, e kīia ana tēnei ko te noho pūroto. Kitea ai ngā rāngai kōkopu nui ka noho pūroto, puta noa i te motu.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen

    Toitoi

    Kāore tonu e mōhiotia ana ngā wāhanga katoa o te huirnga ā-oranga o te toitoi (Gobiomorphus gobioides). Kitea ai ngā pakeke i ngā puni kaiao kei te taha moana, i ngā wāhi e āta rere ana te wai, ā, kāore e tino kitea ana i te tuawhenua – e whakapaetia ana ka noho mō te wā roa ki ngā wahapū, kātahi ka heke ki te wai māori. Kitea ai te toitoi i raro maru, ā, hei te pō ka puta mai ki te kai.

    E whakapaetia ana ka noho wai tai ngā torongū mō tētahi wā, engari kāore anō kia kitea ngā punua toitoi.

    Kitea ai te toitoi i te nuinga o ngā rohe o Aotearoa. I tēnei wā, kāore anō kia tino rangahaua tēnei momo ika, nō reira kāore e tino nui ngā kōrero.

    He whakamānawa ki a Grahame Creative Commons 4.0

    Kōaro

    He ika tau te kōaro (Galaxias brevipinnis) ki te piki; he whānui ōna pakikau, he kaitara whakapiripiri kei raro iho. Ka taea e tēnei ika te piki ngā hīrere poupou.

    Kitea ai tēnei ika moke, moeao hoki i ngā kōawa e tere nei te rere o te wai, he mātao te wai, ā, kei te ngahere hoki te kōawa.

    Ka ora ngā kōaro nei mō ngā tau tekau mā rima neke atu, ā, neke atu i te 400 kiromita te tawhiti o tana haerenga whaka-te-uta, neke atu i te 1,300 mita te teitei o tana pikinga.

    Pēnei i ngā kōkopu, ka whakaputa hua ngā kōaro i ngā otaota i ngā kōawa ngahere i te paringa o te wai, heoi anō, ka whakaputa hoki ngā kōaro i ngā hua i te whaiawa kirikiri o te kōawa. Ka rewa ngā torongū ki te moana, ka tupu i reira i te wā o te hōtoke, ā, ka heke anō ngā punua hei inanga ki te hikuwai o ngā awa i te kōanga. Heoi anō, tērā ētahi kōaro ka noho pūroto – ka whakatutuki i ō rātou huringa ā-oranga i te wai māori – e kīia ana tēnei ko te noho pūroto. He maha ngā rāngai kōaro noho pūroto, puta noa i te motu.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen

    Piharau

    Nō te whānau ika kauae-kore te piharau (Geotria australis). He tau ngā pakeke ki te piki hīrere, heoi, nā te korenga o ngā puni kaiao, nā ngā pāwai hoki e aukati ana i ngā hekenga, ka noho kē ngā rāngai ki ngā teiteitanga kei raro iho (400 mita, kei raro iho), ā, tata ake ana ki te taha moana.

    Ka noho ngā punua piharau ki ngā rua kei ngā tapa o ngā kōawa e kī ana i te kenepuru. He kāpō, he hāurapango hoki ngā punua. Kia 100-120 miromita te roa (ka 3 – 5 te roa e tupu ana) ka huri hei pakeke, ka puta mai ngā karu, ka kikorangi hoki te kiri. E kīia ana tēnei huringa, ko te macropthalmia, ā, ka heke ēnei ika ki te moana ki te kai parakūkā i ngā ika me ngā tohorā.

    He ika heke wai māori ngā piharau – ka heke i te moana ki ngā awa ki te whakaputa hua. Ka paopao mai ngā hua i te wai māori, ā, ka noho ngā punua ki reira mō ngā tau e whā, neke atu rānei, kātahi ka heke ki te moana. I konei, ka piri ēnei ki ngā kōpiha me te kiko o ētahi atu ika, o ētahi atu kararehe nohowai rānei hei parakūkā. Ka whakamahia e te piharau tōna waha motuhake – he porohita ngotengote, e niho koi kei roto, he koi ake, he pakari ake hoki ngā niho kei te arero – hei kai i te toto o te ika e noho nā ia.

    I mua i te pakeketanga, ka hoki ngā piharau ki te wai māori ki te moemoe, ā, ka whakamahia e rātou ō rātou waha ki te piri me te piki i ngā tāheke me ngā hīrere iti.

    Ka noho ngā pakeke heke ki uta mō ngā marama tekau mā waru, ka pakeke te tinana i mua i te whakaputa hua. I muri mai i te whakaputa hua, ka ora ngā ira e rua mō ngā marama e toru, kātahi ka mate. I kitea e ngā kaipūtaiao ngā wāhi whakaputa hua o ngā ika nei i te tuakoi tonga, i Akaroa i Waitaha.

    Kāore ngā pakeke e kai i te wai māori – nō reira e kore e kainga ētahi atu ika wai māori me te tāngata e hīkoi ana i te kōawa!

    Ko tētahi atu ingoa mō te piharau, ko te kanakana, ā, he taonga tēnei momo ika ki te Māori, he kai reka nā rātou.

    Mātakina tēnei ataata o tētahi piharau e whakamahi ana i tōna waha ngotengote ki te piki i tēnei pakitara i konei.

    He whakamānawa ki a Peter Anderson nō Te Papa Atawhai, Creative Commons 4.0

    Kanae raukura

    Ko te kanae raukura tētahi o ngā momo ika e rua o te whānau Mugilidae kei Aotearoa – ko te kātaka tērā atu.

    Kitea ai te kanae raukura (Mugil cephalus) puta noa i te ao, ā, ko Aotearoa te takiwā whaka-te-tonga rawa o te ao e noho nei tēnei. Ko Te Ika-a-Māui te wāhi matua e kitea nuitia ai tēnei momo ika, ā, ka kitea hoki i Te Moana-o-Raukawa i te raumati anahe. Ka noho rātou ki ngā whanga, ki ngā repo waikure, ki ngā wahapū anō hoki. Ahakoa he ika moana te kanae raukura, ka tawhiti hoki te hekenga ki uta. I te riu o Waikato, kitea ai ngā kanae raukura ki te pāwai o Karāpiro, i te awa o Waipā hoki i Te Kūiti. Engari, me hoki ēnei ki te moana ki te whakaputa hua.

    Kai ai te kanae raukura i ngā para me ngā otaota ka ngotea e rātou i te whaiawa. Kai ai hoki ngā ika nei mā te timotimo i ngā otaota rōwai.

    He whakamānawa ki a Izuzuki, Creative Commons 3.0

    Inanga

    Ko ngā inanga (Galaxias maculatus) ngā momo inanga ka tino kitea. Kitea ai ēnei ki ngā puni kaiao wai māori kei ngā raorao, pēnei i ngā manga me ngā kōawa taha moana, ngā awa, ngā hōpua, ngā roto, ngā wahapū me ngā repo. Ka tere ā-kāhui te inanga. Kitea ai ngā inanga i te awatea e kai ana i ngā ngārara iti.

    O ngā momo inanga e rima, e tino mārama ana te mataora o ngā inanga. Ka heke ngā inanga ki ngā wahapū ki te whakaputa hua hei ngā tai nunui i te ngahuru me te hōtoke. Ka whakaputaina ngā hua i ngā otaota kei ngā tapa o te wahapū. Ka piri ngā hua ki ngā mauti mākū, ki ngā toitoi, ki ngā kuta me ngā harakeke, ā, ka whā wiki, ka puta ngā hua i te pupuke o te tai nui. Ka kawea e te waipuke me te tai timu ngā hua iti ki waho, ki te moana ki reira tere ai mō te 4 ki te 6 marama, ko tā rātou he kai i ngā kaiako moroiti e pōteretere ana i te moana. Ka hoki mai ki te wai māori i waenga i te tīmatanga o te kōanga me te tīmatanga o te raumati, ka kaukau whakarunga ā-kāhui te inanga i te awa.

    Heoi anō, tērā ētahi momo inanga ka noho pūroto, ka whakatutuki i ō rātou huringa ā-oranga i te wai māori anahe – e kīia ana tēnei he noho pūroto.

    Ehara i te mea ka tino tawhiti te terenga o tēnei momo ika ki uta, nō te mea he uaua ki a ia te hipa i ngā tāheke hukahuka, e kore hoki e hipa i ngā hīrere.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen

    Paraki

    E rua ngā momo o te whānau Retropinnidae kei Aotearoa e kitea ana, ko te kehakeha me te pōrohe. Kitea ai ngā pōrohe i te tai tamawahine o Te Waipounamu anahe, i ngā pūaha o ngā awa me ngā wahapū o ngā awa rangaranga.

    He momo matatuhi te paraki, ka tere ā-kāhui nei i te kahu o te wai, kāore e whakatā, e huna rānei i te whaiawa. Ka kitea rātou e tere noa ana i ngā kōawa me ngā roto, i a rātou e kai ana.

    Kitea ai ngā kehakeha puta noa i te motu. Ka noho ki te awa tere me te wai kāore e rere, ā, kei Aotearoa ētahi rāngai whakawhitiwhiti wai, me ētahi kāore e whakawhitiwhiti.

    Ahakoa ehara tēnei i te momo tau ki te piki, he tau kē ngā paraki ki te kaukau, ā, ka tawhiti te terenga o ngā ika nei ki uta, ki ngā rohenga awa kāore i te tino mānia. Ka kino ngā parahanga, pēnei i te haukini, me ngā tukumate, pēnei i te wera o te wai. Nō reira, he ika pai ngā paraki mō te whakarite i ngā paearu mō ngā arawai o Aotearoa, nō te mea, ki te kitea ngā paraki, he tohu tērā he pai te wai mō te nuinga o ngā ika.

    I ngā awa, ka haoa ngā punua e te hunga hao inanga i ā rātou e heke ana ki ngā hikuwai, ā, ka kotahi rātou me ngā ika ririki. I ngā rauwiringa wai o Waikato, e karangahia ana ‘he inanga tuarua’, ā, e kaha ana te haotanga o te paraki.

    He whakamānawa: Nā Te Papa Atawhai te whakaahua o te paraki, Creative Commons 4.0

    Mohoao

    Ko te mohoao (Rhombosolea retiaria) anahe te uri o te whānau Pleuronectidae, he momo wai māori tūturu. He motuhake te mohoao i Aotearoa, ā, koinei te pātiki noho wai māori kotahi i te ao.

    I te nuinga o te wā, he momo noho taha moana, engari ka noho hoki ki ngā wahapū, ki ngā roto kei ngā raorao, me te wāhanga whakararo o te awa. Ki te kore e tino paripari te rōnakitanga o te awa, ka tino tawhiti te hekenga o ngā ika nei ki uta. Ka noho ngā mohoao ki ngā papawai maha, mai i ngā papawai kenepuru ki ngā papawai kirikiri, ā, kāore he aha ki a rātou te tere o te rere o te wai o ngā awa me ngā kōawa.

    He konihi kaikiko ngā kātua – ka kirihuna ki te papawai, ka tāhapa i ngā ika iti. Kai ai hoki ngā mohoao i ngā inanga i ngā hekenga o te Kōanga. Kāore i te tino mōhiotia ngā wāhanga katoa o te mataora o ngā mohoao, hāunga te hekenga o ngā kātua ki te moana i te Hōtoke, ki reira rātou whakaputa hua ai.

    He whakamānawa ki a Stella McQueen, Creative Commons 4.0

    Ika ririki

    Ko ngā ika ririki te ranga ika wai māori nunui o Aotearoa nō te whānau Galaxiidae. Toru tekau ngā momo ika ririki, pēnei i ngā inanga, i ngā kōkopu, i ngā kōaro me ngā waikaka.

    Ko te ingoa ‘galaxiid’ i ahu mai i te tauira kāhui whetū kōura me te hiriwā e kitea na i te kiri unahi-kore o ngā ika nei – koinā hei huna i a rātou i roto i ngā kōawa ngahere e tere ai rātou. Kitea ai hoki ki ngā repo, ki ngā manga me ngā awa nui. He tau te nuinga o ngā ika ririki ki te piki, ā, mā ngā taratara kei ō rātou pakikau rātou e āwhina ki te piki hīrere.

    He paerongo kei ngā upoko me ngā tinana o ngā ika ririki – te rārangi kaurapa – he wāhanga tēnei nō ngā pūnaha tairongo kite-kore o ngā ika katoa. Heoi anō, kua whanake ake te āheinga o te kōkopu ki te whakamahi i ngā paerongo kei ō rātou upoko ki te kite i ngā mea e taka ana ki te wai kia kai ai rātou i ngā ngārara ka taka iho i ngā tauwharenga otaota hei te pō.

    Ko ngā hātaretare te kai matua a ngā ika ririki – ngā hātaretare nohowai me te maha o ngā hātaretare iti, me ērā ka taka ki te wai.

    Ko te nuinga o ngā ika ririki kua tata korehāhā, kei te takiwā o te haurua kei te rārangi IUCN. Ko te ika ririki kauaeroa te ika tino onge o Aotearoa, ā, e kīia ana ‘kei te pari o te rua.’

    He whakamānawa ki a Simon Elkington nō Te Papa Atawhai mō te whakaahua o ngā ika rikiriki (Galaxias prognathous).

    Ngā momo inanga katoa

    He karangatanga te inanga mō ngā momo whakawhitiwhiti wai e rima, ngā ika ririki ka heke. Kua tata korehāhā ngā momo e whā o roto i te rima i te korenga o ngā puni kaiao, te patuhia e ngā taraute, te hao inanga me ngā ārai kei ngā arawai e aukati ana i ngā hekenga, pēnei i ngā kōrere. Ko te kōkopu taiwhara anahe kāore e tata korehāhā ana.

    Hāunga te inanga, he moeao ngā momo inanga katoa o Aotearoa. Ka noho ngā hua i waho i te wai mō te wā roa, ā, me āta marumaru i ngā otaota kia mākūkū tonu ai.

    Karangahia ai hoki i ētahi wā ngā kehakeha he inanga.

    Inanga me ngā momo inanga

    Tuhinga

    Nā Cheri van Schravendijk-Goodman

    He karangatanga matua te inanga mō ngā ika māpurapura ka haoa e te tangata, ka tunua ki te hēki rānei, he kai reka. Engari, e rima kē ngā momo ika ririki kei tēnei karangatanga. Ko te kōkopu nui, ko te kōkopu taiwhara, te kōkopu kaueapoto, te kōaro me te inanga. Kōrero ai ngā iwi o Te Pūaha mō tētahi atu momo inanga – he ‘inanga tuarua’ ki a rātou – ā, ko te pōrohe.

    Ko te inanga te momo ka tino kitea, he pai ake ki a rātou te whakaputa hua ki ngā wāhi wahapū, arā, kāore e tino totetote nei te wai. Ka whakaputaina e rātou ngā hua ki ngā tapa mauti, kia haere mai ai tētahi tai nui i te moana ki te awa, ka whakapiki i te hohonu o te wai, mā tērā e eke ai ngā ika ki ngā tapa otaota, ki reira whakaputa ai i ā rātou hua. Kātahi ka heke anō te wai, ka waiho ngā hua ki ērā wāhi mākūkū. Ka haere mai anō te tai nui, ka whakapiki anō i te hohonu o te wai, ā, ka rewahia ērā torongū ki te moana.

    Nō reira, kei te takiwā o te 200 maero te tawhiti i te whenua, ā, kāore i te tino mōhiotia ana, e ahatia ana aua torongū.

    Ērā atu o ngā ika ririki – ngā kōkopu, ngā kōaro – kāore hoki e mōhiotia ana ngā nekehanga o ā rātou mahi whakaputa hua. E tino mārama ana ngā nekehanga a ngā inanga, nō te mea ko ērā ngā ika e mārama nei te kitea,  ā, he maha hoki ngā inanga. Engari anō ngā kōkopu me ngā kōaro, ka rata kē ki ngā kōawa tokatoka, he nui ngā tauwharenga me ngā hikuwai anō hoki.

    E mahitahi ana mātou ko NIWA ki te whakangūngū i ētahi tāngata e noho ana ki ngā rohe hōpuapua, kia whai pūkenga ai rātou ki te haere ki te aro turuki, kia kohikohia ngā kōrero mō ngā kōkopu me ngā kōaro.

    He whakamānawa: © University of Waikato. Tēnā, tirohia ngā mihi kei te ataata e kitea ai ngā whakamānawa.

    Rights: Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato Published 22 March 2018, Updated 22 March 2018 Size: 880 KB Referencing Hub media