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    Te kohi kuta

    Kohia ai e te Māori ngā momo tipu me ērā atu hanga o te taiao e noho taonga ana ki a rātou i runga i ngā mātāpono a te kaitiaki. I takea mai ēnei kōrero mō te kuta i ētahi tohunga raranga, ētahi kairangahau taiea, ētahi kaikohi taonga kuta anō hoki o Ngāti Pikiao me Te Rarawa. Kua mau i a rātou ngā pūkenga me ngā kōrero a ngā kuia, a ngā koroua o ō rātou hapū me ō rātou hoa raranga. Ko ngā kaumātua me ngā tohunga raranga ngā kaitohutohu mō te wā pai o te tau, ngā wāhi pai me ngā tikanga hei kohi i te kuta, tae atu ki te whakariterite i ngā rau mō te raranga, me te āhua tonu o te raranga.

    He mea āta tiaki e ngā kairaranga Māori ō rātou kuta, kia tupu tonu ai he kuta pai mā rātou i aua wāhi. Mēnā i haere poka noa tētahi ki te kohi kuta i te kuta o tētahi atu, kāore tētahi o te hau kāinga i te ārahi i a ia, ka mōrearea haere pea tērā rawa.

    Pērā anō i ngā iwi taketake katoa o te ao, ka ahu mai te matatau ki te āhua o te taiao i te āta mātaki roa, i te maumahara, me te tuku i ngā mātauranga ka emi mai ki ngā uri whakaheke. Ā, ka morimoria, ka tupu haere ēnei mātauranga i runga anō i ngā wheako o ngā reanga whai i muri. Me tika anō ngā kōrero ka tukuna iho, i te mea e whirinaki ana te hapori ki te whenua, ki te moana me te wai māori mō te kai, te kākahu me te whakamarumaru. Ahakoa kua kore i whakamahia te kuta hei hanga i ngā taonga me ngā rawa o ia rā, kei te tukuna tonutia ngā kōrero mōna me ōna āhuatanga hauropi e te mātāpuputu ki te mātātahi.

    Kua ngaro atu te kuta ki hea?

    Ko te mea nui i rangona i ngā mōhio o Ngāti Pikiao me Te Rarawa, ko tō rātou kaha pōuri i te iti haere o te āhei ki te kohi kuta i ngā wāhi mai rā anō kua kohi kuta rātou i reira. Kua noho papa ngā wāhi nei i ngā āhuatanga huhua, tae atu ki ēnei: te whakarakenga o te whenua, te nui haere o ngā parakino i te taiao, te karinga o ngā awakeri hei kawe atu i te wai, me te aukatinga o ngā ara e tae atu ai te tangata ki aua wāhi. I ētahi wā, ko te rerekē o te āhua o te whakamahi i te whenua, me te hē haere o te āhua o te whenua, ka hua ake i te rerekē o ngā uara o ngā tāngata nō rātou ngā whenua me te hunga whakamahi i ngā rawa o te whenua – ō rātou whakaaro ki te whenua, te wai me ngā rawa taiao.

    I te korenga o ētahi o ngā kuta o mua, kua mate ētahi kaikohi kuta ki te haere ki tawhiti, kohi ai. Me te aha, kua tomo pea i ngā kuta o ētahi atu. He take nui tēnei ki ngā hapū kua iti ō rātou wāhi pai mō te mahi kuta. Kia toitū ai te mana me te mātauranga o te mahi kuta, me āta rauhī ngā kuta e pai tonu ana i tēnei wā, me whakapūmau ngā hononga ki aua wāhi, me āta whakanui anō te mana me te wairua o ngā taonga ka waihangatia ki te kuta.

    Te whakamahi i te kuta

    He ngohe, he pūkahukahu ngā kaka pūaha o te kuta. Ka tere kino ki te kore e āta whāwhātia. Kāore hoki i rite te kaha o ngā kaka ki ō te harakeke me te wharariki (te harakeke noho maunga, a Phormium cookianum). Engari kei te manakohia tonutia te kuta i ngā rohe e nui ana, e pai ana hoki te kounga o te kuta. Kāore e whakamahia te wāhanga o te kuta kei waho kē o te wai e tupu ana, i te mea he ngoikore tērā wāhanga o te kakau.

    Ka noho tonu mai he hau takiwā ki te kakau o te kuta, nō reira, ina āta rarangahia te wāhanga pai, he pai te ngohe o te taonga ka oti mai, he pupuri hoki tāna i te mahana. Waihoki, kāore he taha runga, taha raro o te kakau o te kuka, nō reira mō ngā taonga pēnei i te tāpau (he momo takapau ka rarangahia ki te kuta), he rite te pai o ngā mata e rua.

    E kaingākautia ana te tāpau i roto o Te Rarawa me Ngāti Pikiao. He takapau i moe ai te tangata i ngā rā o mua, he whāriki noa iho rānei mō te papa. Ahakoa pēhea te whakamahi, he mahana, he hāneanea anō hoki. Rarangahia ai ētahi kia rahi tonu, e kapi katoa ai te papa o te whare i te mea kotahi. Ahakoa horahia nuitia he whāriki huruhuru me te moenga Pākehā ki ngā papa i ēnei rā, i ngā rā o mua, ko te tāpau te tino moenga, ā, ka āta tohua mō te manuhiri, mō ngā tāngata tiketike rānei o te hapū. I te whakahoutanga o Pukepoto, he marae o roto o Te Rarawa, i ngā 1970, ka āta rarangahia mai he tāpau hou kia rite tonu ngā tauira ki ō ngā mea tawhito kua tāwekoweko noa. He mea whakairi ēnei ki ngā pakitara hei tohu whakamānawa ki ngā pūkenga o ngā kairaranga o mua. Kei ōna anō pukapuka ngā kōrero me ngā whakaahua o ngā hanga mahia ai ki te kuta. Anei ētahi: te maro kuta, te pākē (he kākahu pare ua), te pōtae taua (he pōtae mau ai i te matenga o tētahi), te kete, te pōtae ārai rā, tae atu ki te tūwhara me te tāpau (he momo whāriki). Purua ai hoki he kuta ki ngā pakitara o te kāuta me te whare, hei pupuri i te mahana ki te whare.

    Te kohi me te whakariterite i te kuta

    He kuta e tupu ana i te taha o ētahi roto hōhonu i ngā rohe o Te Arawa me Ngāti Pikiao (ko te paopao te kupu a Ngāti Pikiao mō te kuta). He āhua rite ēnei wāhi ki ngā kuta i toroa ai e ngā hapū nei i ngā rā o mua. He wai hōhonu te tino kāinga o te kuta. E matapoporetia ana e te hunga raranga ēnei wāhi e hōhonu ana te wai i te mea ko te nui atu o te wāhanga o te kakau kei te wai, ko te painga atu. Ki te pāpaku te wai, ka pīngore, ka hē hoki te tupu o te kakau. Me i whakamahia ngā kakau ngoikore, e kore pea e rawe te taonga e oti mai.

    Ko te wā pai katoa mō te kohi i te kuta hei raranga, ko te wā e āhua moe ana te tipu, arā, ko waenganui i Paengawhāwhā me Hereturikōkā. Ki te waiho mō muri i Hereturikōkā, ka tino makariri te wai, ā, tērā pea ka hē anō te kounga o ngā kakau. Tahuri ai ētahi hapū ki te kohi kuta i te tīmatanga o te ngahuru. Ko ētahi anō ka waiho mō te wā i a Matariki i te takurua, kohi ai.

    E ai ki te hunga mōhio ki ngā kōrero mō te kuta, koinei i raro nei ētahi o ngā tikanga i toitū ai te kuta i ngā rā o nehe:

    • nā te kuta tonu a ia i tiaki
    • i tangohia ko te rahi anake e mātua hiahiatia ana
    • kāore i kokotia te katoa o tētahi kuta
    • ko te kuta i kokotia he kuta i reira i tētahi tau, kāore i toroa i te tau whai i muri mai.

    He rōpū tonu ka āta kohi i te kuta. Ka wehea ngā mahi – ko ētahi ka ruku ki te kokoti, ko ētahi ka wehewehe i ngā kakau kua kotia. Ka kotia ngā kakau pakari ki te pūtake tonu, ki runga paku ake o te akakōare kei te takere o te wai hōhonu e tupu ana. Mā konei e riro mai ai te wāhi kaha mō te raranga. Ka tapahia ngā kakau pakari ahakoa pēhea te āhua, te roa rānei e tupu ana.

    Ko ngā kakau mataora, ka rewa ki te mata o te wai, ā, i reira ka nukuhia e tētahi ki te taha o te roto. Ko ngā kakau kua kino te āhua, ka waiho ki rahaki mō tētahi wā, ā, ko ngā kakau pai ka wehewehea ki ōna anō huinga rite te roa, kātahi ka paiheretia.

    Ko ngā kakau kua mate, kua pirau, kua kino rānei te āhua, ka whakahokia atu ki te kuta. Ko ngā mea pai, ka whakahokia ki te marae. I reira ka āta tirohia anō, ka āta whakarōpūngia anō.

    He rerekē hoki te āhua o te whakarite i te kuta. Ko te harakeke me te wharariki, me kōwharawhara, me hāpine, me kōhua anō pea. Engari ko te kuta, me whakamaroke noa. Kia maroke (ka mutu he torutoru noa pea ngā rā e maroke ai), kua rite mō te raranga. Ki te uhia te kuta ki te papanga māmā i te wā e whakamaroke ana (kia kore ai e taea e ngā hihi o te rā), ka āhua rite ki te koura, ki te pīngao te tae. Ka taea hoki te whakairi ngā kakau ki te rākau i te wāhi marumaru hei whakamaroke, ā, ina pēnei, ka tea ake te tae. Ki te kitea ētahi e pirau haere ana i te wā o te whakamaroke, ka porowhiua ēnā. Ina maroke, kua pai te rokiroki, mō ētahi tau nei pea ki te waiho ki te wāhi hauhau, ki te wāhi haukū-kore.

    He maha tonu ngā tae tērā e hua ake i te kuta kotahi. Ka taea hoki te kuta te tāwai kia rerekē te tae, engari e mihia nuitia ana ōna tae māori, ōna karaka ātaahua ka maroke ana. Anei ngā take i rerekē ai te tae o ngā kakau:

    • te wā o te tau i kohia ai
    • te momo oneone
    • mēnā i kainga ngā kakau e ngā hihi o te rā i te wā whakamaroke.

    Ki te whakamahia te kuta māori, kāore i tāwaia, ka āhua rite ngā tae ki ērā o ngā kakau ka waiho kia mate hirinaki noa i tō rātou nōhanga tūturu.

    He kōrero kōpūtahi

    He whakamihi

    I pūtakea mai tēnei mātaitanga i tētahi kōrero i tuhia mō te pukapuka Te Reo o Te Repo – The Voice of the Wetland.​​​​​​, arā, i Kuta – the giant of freshwater habitats, nā Mieke Kapa (Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato).

      Published 16 November 2020 Referencing Hub articles