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  • This article, written by Md Arif Hasan and Associate Professor Ralph Brougham Chapman from Environmental Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, is part of the Climate Explained series, that aims to answer questions about climate change. The question that sparked this article was:

    “There is a lot of discussion on the benefits of electric cars versus fossil fuel cars in the context of lithium mining. Please can you tell me which one weighs in better on the environmental impact in terms of global warming and why?”

    The article is republished from The Conversation, under Creative Commons licence CC BY-ND 4.0.

    Rights: Judi Lapsley Miller

    An EV getting charged

    Owners of a Nissan Leaf, an all-electric vehicle, plug it in to a charging station.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) seem very attractive at first sight. But when we look more closely, it becomes clear that they have a substantial carbon footprint and some downsides in terms of the extraction of lithium, cobalt and other metals. And they don’t relieve congestion in crowded cities.

    In this response to the question, we touch briefly on the lithium issue, but focus mainly on the carbon footprint of electric cars.

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries as a major power source in electronic devices, including mobile phones, laptops and electric cars has contributed to a 58% increase in lithium mining in the past decade worldwide. There seems little near-term risk of lithium being mined out, but there is an environmental downside.

    The mining process requires extensive amounts of water, which can cause aquifer depletion and adversely affect ecosystems in the Atacama Salt Flat, in Chile, the world’s largest lithium extraction site. But researchers have developed methods to recover lithium from water.

    Turning to climate change, it matters whether electric cars emit less carbon than conventional vehicles, and how much less.

    Rights: Cath Samson, Anna Spence

    Wind turbines in New Zealand

    Renewable energy resources, such as wind power, support the national power grid.

    Emissions reduction potential of EVs

    The best comparison is based on a life cycle analysis which tries to consider all the emissions of carbon dioxide during vehicle manufacturing, use and recycling. Life cycle estimates are never entirely comprehensive, and emission estimates vary by country, as circumstances differ.

    In New Zealand, 82% of energy for electricity generation came from renewable sources in 2017. With these high renewable electricity levels for electric car recharging, compared with say Australia or China, EVs are better suited to New Zealand. But this is only one part of the story. One should not assume that, overall, electric cars in New Zealand have a close-to-zero carbon footprint or are wholly sustainable.

    A life cycle analysis of emissions considers three phases: the manufacturing phase (also known as cradle-to-gate), the use phase (well-to-wheel) and the recycling phase (grave-to-cradle).

    The manufacturing phase

    In this phase, the main processes are ore mining, material transformation, manufacturing of vehicle components and vehicle assembly. A recent study of car emissions in China estimates emissions for cars with internal combustion engines in this phase to be about 10.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide (tCO₂) per car, compared to emissions for an electric car of about 13 tonnes (including the electric car battery manufacturing).

    Rights: Steve Jurvetson, licensed under Creative Commons 2.0

    Tesla Model X

    The Tesla Model X all-electric vehicle was released in 2015. This is a mid-size crossover SUV with a lightweight aluminum body, with a variety of different passenger configurations and passenger doors that are articulating falcon-wing designs that open vertically.

    Emissions from the manufacturing of a lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide battery alone were estimated to be 3.2 tonnes. If the vehicle life is assumed to be 150,000 kilometres, emissions from the manufacturing phase of an electric car are higher than for fossil-fuelled cars. But for complete life cycle emissions, the study shows that EV emissions are 18% lower than fossil-fuelled cars.

    The use phase

    In the use phase, emissions from an electric car are solely due to its upstream emissions, which depend on how much of the electricity comes from fossil or renewable sources. The emissions from a fossil-fuelled car are due to both upstream emissions and tailpipe emissions.

    Rights: Alexander Ishchenko, licenced through 123RF Ltd

    Car exhaust

    Car exhaust can contain particulates, especially if the vehicle is an older car or runs on diesel. Scientists are concerned that the particulates carry toxic chemicals, such as nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide, deep into our lungs where they can make us ill.

    The US EPA reports that a typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. CO2 is a greenhouse gas.

    Upstream emissions of EVs essentially depend on the share of zero or low-carbon sources in the country’s electricity generation mix. To understand how the emissions of electric cars vary with a country’s renewable electricity share, consider Australia and New Zealand.

    In 2018, Australia’s share of renewables in electricity generation was about 21% (similar to Greece’s at 22%). In contrast, the share of renewables in New Zealand’s electricity generation mix was about 84% (less than France’s at 90%). Using these data and estimates from a 2018 assessment, electric car upstream emissions (for a battery electric vehicle) in Australia can be estimated to be about 170 g of CO2 per km while upstream emissions in New Zealand are estimated at about 25 g of CO2 per km on average. This shows that using an electric car in New Zealand is likely to be about seven times better in terms of upstream carbon emissions than in Australia.

    The above studies show that emissions during the use phase from a fossil-fuelled compact sedan car were about 251 g of CO2 per km. Therefore, the use phase emissions from such a car were about 81 g of CO2 per km higher than those from a grid-recharged EV in Australia, and much worse than the emissions from an electric car in New Zealand.

    The recycling phase

    The key processes in the recycling phase are vehicle dismantling, vehicle recycling, battery recycling and material recovery. The estimated emissions in this phase, based on a study in China, are about 1.8 tonnes for a fossil-fuelled car and 2.4 tonnes for an electric car (including battery recycling). This difference is mostly due to the emissions from battery recycling which is 0.7 tonnes.

    This illustrates that electric cars are responsible for more emissions than their petrol counterparts in the recycling phase. But it’s important to note the recycled vehicle components can be used in the manufacturing of future vehicles, and batteries recycled through direct cathode recycling can be used in subsequent batteries. This could have significant emissions reduction benefits in the future.

    Rights: Mario Roberto Duran Ortiz, licensed under Creative Commons 3.0

    Nissan Leaf all-electric vehicle

    Almost 25% of the Nissan Leaf is manufactured from recycled materials. Recycled plastics are used to make door panels, the dashboard and seats. Plastic materials are lightweight, making vehicles more fuel/energy efficient.

    So on the basis of recent studies, fossil-fuelled cars generally emit more than electric cars in all phases of a life cycle. The total life cycle emissions from a fossil-fuelled car and an electric car in Australia were 333 g of CO2 per km and 273 g of CO2 per km, respectively. That is, using average grid electricity, EVs come out about 18% better in terms of their carbon footprint.

    Likewise, electric cars in New Zealand work out a lot better than fossil-fuelled cars in terms of emissions, with life-cycle emissions at about 333 g of CO2 per km for fossil-fuelled cars and 128 g of CO2 per km for electric cars. In New Zealand, EVs perform about 62% better than fossil cars in carbon footprint terms.

    Nature of science

    Climate change is a pressing socio-scientific issue. New and improved technologies – like EVs – are one means of reducing vehicle CO2 emissions. Scientific and technological research can continue to improve the life-cycle carbon footprint of EVs, but society also needs to rethink transportation methods.

    Related content

    Climate change

    Climate change is a big topic but our planning pathways article break it down into manageable themes – complete with pedagogy and NZC information.

    Find out more about renewable energy sources in New Zealand.

    Electric cars

    Electric cars have been around a lot longer than you may think. Have a look at the Electric car history timeline and a Participatory Science Platform (PSP) project in Taranaki called REV it UP, where students are building an electric vehicle.

    Driving us into the future is an article on electric cars in Connected 2016, Level 4, which comes with additional teacher support material.

    See the range of related resources in our Pinterest board, CARS – and science that goes VROOM VROOM.

    Useful links

    This article from The Conversation looks at why switching to electric cars in New Zealand makes sense even if all of our electricity is not fully renewable.

    Find out more about electric cars in New Zealand on the Ministry of Transport website.

    Drive Electric is a not-for-profit with the goal of making electric vehicle ownership in New Zealand mainstream. Leading The Charge is a community for electric vehicle enthusiasts.

    See Sigurd Magnussons’s regularly updated New Zealand Electric Car Guide.

    This 2021 Stuff news article BIG plans for old EV batteries looks at the issues of what happens to old EV car batteries and the plans by Battery Industry Group to re-use and recycle them.


    This article was written by Md Arif Hasan (PhD candidate, Victoria University of Wellington) and Ralph Brougham Chapman (Associate Professor, Director Environmental Studies, Victoria University of Wellington). This is part of the Climate Explained series, a collaboration between The Conversation, Stuff and the New Zealand Science Media Centre to answer questions about climate change.

    The article was originally published on The Conversation, 16 October 2019. Read the original article.

    Rights: The Conversation

    The Conversation

    The Conversation is an independent source of news and views, sourced from the academic and research community and delivered direct to the public.

    The Conversation

      Published 22 October 2019, Updated 16 April 2021 Referencing Hub articles
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