The body’s first line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/177-the-body-s-first-line-of-defence
Your body has a two-line defence system against pathogens (germs) that make you sick. Pathogens ...

The nitrogen cycle

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/960-the-nitrogen-cycle
Nitrogen is the most abundant element in our planet’s atmosphere. Approximately 78% of the ...

Gel electrophoresis

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2029-gel-electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis is used to separate macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. DNA ...

Bacterial DNA – the role of plasmids

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However ...

Pollination and fertilisation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/77-pollination-and-fertilisation
Sexual reproduction is a way of making a new individual by joining two special sex cells ...

The body’s second line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/178-the-body-s-second-line-of-defence
If the pathogens are able to get past the first line of defence, for example, through a cut in ...

Bacterial transformation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2032-bacterial-transformation
Bacteria are commonly used as host cells for making copies of DNA in the lab because they are ...

Vegetative plant propagation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1662-vegetative-plant-propagation
Plant propagation is the process of increasing the number of plants of a particular species or ...

DNA extraction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2036-dna-extraction
DNA extraction is a routine procedure used to isolate DNA from the nucleus of cells. Scientists ...

DNA profiling

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1980-dna-profiling
DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a ...

DNA cloning

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2031-dna-cloning
DNA cloning is the starting point for many genetic engineering approaches to biotechnology ...

Restriction enzymes

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2035-restriction-enzymes
In the laboratory, restriction enzymes (or restriction endonucleases) are used to cut DNA into ...

Macronutrients

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/534-macronutrients
Nutrients are substances needed for growth, energy provision and other body functions ...

E. coli – the biotech bacterium

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1899-e-coli-the-biotech-bacterium
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short) is crucial in modern biotechnology ...

Impacts of biotechnology on society

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1209-impacts-of-biotechnology-on-society
Biotechnology has helped improve the quality of people’s lives for over 10,000 years. Today’s ...

What are ceramics?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1769-what-are-ceramics
A ceramic is an inorganic non-metallic solid made up of either metal or non-metal compounds ...

How to add foreign DNA to bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to ...

Transgenic cows – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/834-transgenic-cows-introduction
Scientists at AgResearch in New Zealand have successfully produced healthy transgenic cows that ...

What is clay?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1771-what-is-clay
Since the earliest times, humankind has had a close association with clay. From use as a ...

Modern biotechnology

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1206-modern-biotechnology
The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led ...

What is silage?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2006-what-is-silage
Silage is preserved pasture. Making silage is an important way for farmers to feed cows and ...

Microorganisms – friend or foe?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/176-microorganisms-friend-or-foe
We can’t see them. We can’t hear them or feel them, but they are with us. There are 10 trillion ...

Creating different cheese characteristics

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/829-creating-different-cheese-characteristics
Cheese comes in numerous varieties of different styles, textures and flavours, but it’s all ...

Wool fibre properties

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/875-wool-fibre-properties
Wool’s range of desirable properties make it a valuable material for many different purposes ...
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