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  • Antarctica is the coldest, driest, windiest and highest continent on Earth. What makes the frozen continent so valuable to scientists and vulnerable to human contact?

    Every year, scientists and support staff from around the world travel to this extreme environment to take part in extensive research programmes. These projects often extend over several seasons and involve scientists from a range of countries and disciplines: biologists, chemists, physicists and geologists often work as part of a team. Teams usually share equipment, programme costs and expertise, and develop extensive linkages as a result of this collaboration. New technologies such as satellite links and data loggers allow researchers to set up equipment in the field during the summer, and collect and analyse information throughout the year.

    The harsh terrestrial environment places severe demands on Antarctica’s land plants and animals. Air temperatures are usually well below freezing, and strong winds exaggerate the effects of the cold; there is total darkness for three months during winter, while the summer sees 24-hour sunshine; and fresh water is provided only by snow melt. In contrast, the nutrient-rich surrounding oceans are rich in plant and animal life. But whether they live in the seas or on land, all Antarctic organisms have physical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to survive in this extreme environment.

    Our interest in Antarctica was initially based on exploration and the search for resources. But today’s scientists have much broader interests:

    Find out more about these New Zealand scientists who work in Antarctica.

    It is very important to keep Antarctica as pristine as possible so all impacts from human presence have to be kept to an absolute minimum, this includes human wastes. All scientists when they leave the field take all their wastes with them to prevent any contamination of the environment.

    The film Thin Ice – The Inside Story of Climate Science provides a look at our planet’s changing climate from the work of scientists working in the Arctic, the Antarctic and around the world. We have a range of Science Learning Hub resources designed to support its use in the classroom.

    Nigel Latta spent 3 weeks in Antarctica filming the documentary series On Thin Ice: Nigel Latta in Antarctica. Explore the articles we wrote for teachers in support of this programme.

    Take up the challenge

    Hands-on student activities center around the properties of seawater, density, fresh water versus salt water and water temperature. The activities are supported by the science articles Glaciers, Icebergs and glaciation, Water and ice and Water density.

    The literacy activity Animal and plant adaptations explores life in cold, dry climates and includes the opportunity to design a unique organism capable of living in these conditions.

    Connected articles

    Connected articles are ideal for cross-curricular literacy learning. The ones featured below include links to related Hub content and activity ideas – wrap-around resources to deepen or extend student thinking and learning, practise content vocabulary or prompt inquiry.

    • Rising seas describes how scientists investigate what is happening with sea levels and use evidence to suggest how we might adapt to the changes.
    • Captured in ice describes the work of glaciologist Nancy Bertler and how scientists investigate Earth’s climate in order to see the past and predict the future.
    • Who’s Eating Who? covers Antarctic food webs and animal adaptations for life in an icy ecosystem.

    Explore more literacy learning links covering Antartica here.

    Question bank

    The Icy ecosystems – question bank provides an initial list of questions about Antarctica, its icy ecosystem and places where their answers can be found. The questions support an inquiry approach.

    Key terms

    For explanations of key concepts, see Icy ecosystems – key terms.


    Explore the timeline to look at some of the key dates in the early discoveries of Antarctica.

    Useful links

    Use this 2014 Radio NZ article, which includes interviews, to find out more about how the latest climate models confirm the melting of the West Antarctic glaciers and Rob DeConta's prediction that Antarctica’s ice sheets could contribute more than a meter of sea-level rise by the end of the century.

    Gateway Antarctica is the Centre for Antarctic Studies and Research at the University of Canterbury. They have a section here of resources for teachers.

      Published 24 June 2008, Updated 2 September 2022 Referencing Hub articles
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