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  • Could 2023 mark a significant decline for Antarctic sea ice? Find out more about the trends of changes in sea ice, and the crucial role that models play in measurement and prediction.

    This article has been republished from The Conversation under Creative Commons licence CC BY-ND 4.0, full acknowledgements are the bottom of this article. This article was originally published under the title As Antarctic sea ice continues its dramatic decline, we need more measurements and much better models to predict its future.

    Rights: Jan Lieser, CC BY-SA

    Satellite view of sea ice

    Record low coverage of ice in the Antarctic region has prompted calls by scientists of a ‘breakdown’ in a 2023 study.

    After two seasons of record-breaking lows, Antarctica’s sea ice remains in dramatic decline, tracking well below any winter maximum levels observed since satellite monitoring began during the late 1970s.

    A layer of frozen seawater that surrounds the Antarctic continent, sea ice cycles from maximum coverage in September to a minimum in February. The summer minimum has also continued to diminish, with three record low summers in the past seven years.

    Rights: Ariaan Purich, CC BY-4.0

    Antarctic sea ice decline

    Antarctic sea ice has been in sharp decline in recent years and its winter maximum reached a record low in 2023.

    This chart shows Antarctic sea ice extent anomaly since 1978, by month, with years superimposed on each other.

    Some scientists have suggested this year could mark a regime shift for Antarctic sea ice. The consequences could be far-reaching for Earth’s climate, because sea ice keeps the planet cooler by reflecting solar energy back into the atmosphere and insulating the ocean. Its formation also generates cold, salty water masses that drive global ocean currents.

    The annual freeze-thaw cycle of Antarctic sea ice is one of Earth’s largest seasonal changes but is a major challenge for climate models to predict accurately.

    Since the 1970s, satellites have been tracking a quantity known as ‘sea ice extent’, which is the total surface area where at least 15% is covered by sea ice.

    This September, it reached a satellite-era record low for this time of year. The previous year, after tracking much lower than the median all winter, Antarctic sea ice extent made a late rally and was 18.3 million square kilometres at its maximum by September 2022, around 2% below the 1981-2010 median.

    Rights: Dr Robbie Mallett

    Measuring sea ice

    A scientist using radar instruments to study sea ice thickness to disentangle the causes of the vanishing winter ice.

    Although 2% might not sound like much, the following summer biologists reported devastating effects on Emperor penguins. No chicks survived in four out of five breeding sites in one region of sea ice loss.

    In 2023, Antarctic sea ice extent started the winter even lower than in 2022, and by the end of July was almost 13% below the 1981-2010 median for that time of year. It reached its maximum extent on 7 September, at just under 17 million square kilometres, which is nearly 9% below the 1981-2010 median.

    Rights: Public domain

    Emperor penguin colony

    An emperor penguin colony on Snow Hill Island, the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Emperor penguins need sea ice to breed. In 2023, it was reported that in four out of five breeding sites in one region of sea ice loss, no chicks survived.

    Why we couldn’t predict this

    Antarctica has bucked the trend of vanishing sea ice observed in the Arctic for decades. Satellite records show a small increasing trend in Antarctic sea ice extent from 2007 to 2016, but this was followed by a decrease since then.

    A recent study shows that almost all models in the current collection of simulations used for the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) failed to reproduce the trend in Antarctic sea ice area observed between 1979 and 2018.

    Global climate models predicted that Antarctic sea ice extent should have been diminishing for all of that period, which is at odds with the observations.

    These models remain our best tools for forecasting future climate. They have been developed since the 1960s to represent the wide range of physical processes of importance to the climate system as realistically as possible.

    They are made up of individual component models for the circulation of the atmosphere and oceans, the transfer of solar energy through the atmosphere, land surface properties and the evolution of sea ice.

    While these models have generally done well at forecasting ocean and land surface warming over the past few decades, they have struggled to simulate Antarctic sea ice.

    Many research groups around the world have investigated the reasons why models have failed to accurately simulate Antarctic sea ice. Changes in wind and wave patterns, natural variability, stratospheric ozone and melt water from the Antarctic ice sheet entering the Southern Ocean have all been proposed as potential explanations.

    So far, none of these have proved to be the definitive answer.

    Rights: Glenn Jacobson/Australian Antarctic Division, CC BY-SA

    Melting Antarctic sea ice

    In 2023, at the time of its September maximum, Antarctic sea ice extent was nearly 9% below the 1981-2010 median for that time of year.

    Changes in sea ice thickness

    The thickness, or depth, of sea ice cannot be measured directly by satellites because it is thin, salty and hidden below a layer of snow of unknown thickness.

    Unlike the Arctic, where we have extensive data from submarines and other sources, information about Antarctic sea ice thickness is very sparse. The data we have mainly come from holes drilled in the sea ice, sea ice monitoring stations, and electromagnetic induction measurements from sleds, helicopters or planes.

    The data are mostly from land-fast sea ice, which is the sea ice attached to land or ice shelves.

    We have only a few airborne thickness measurements over freely moving pack ice, which makes up most of Antarctic sea ice. We need both sea ice area and thickness to determine sea ice volume, which is important for knowing the overall impact of climate change on sea ice.

    Antarctic storms

    McMurdo Sound is a region of the Antarctic coastline in the Ross Sea where both New Zealand (Scott Base) and the USA (McMurdo Station) have Antarctic bases. The sea ice in McMurdo Sound was dramatically thinner than usual in 2022, but not in 2023.

    In 2022, multiple storms kept blowing out McMurdo Sound sea ice during winter. Sea ice that would normally be about two metres thick was around 1-1.3 m thick because it was not able to stay in place and grow thicker over the winter season.

    Snow was thicker than usual in places, which slowed down the growth of sea ice by insulating it from the cold air above. The weather was not warmer, and the ice had not melted; it had been blown out by strong winds.

    Rights: Catherine Kircher/Antarctica New Zealand, CC BY-SA

    Scott Base staff with monitoring equipment

    The decline in sea ice has many impacts, including for researchers. In 2023 Scott Base staff had to carry monitoring equipment onto the sea ice on foot due to vehicle access issues.

    This thinner-than-usual sea ice caused major disruptions in Antarctic operations for New Zealand and other countries in 2022. The University of Otago’s automated sea ice monitoring system is installed each year to measure sea ice thickness, temperature and snow depth. In 2022, Scott Base staff had to take the equipment onto the sea ice on foot for the first time because the sea ice was deemed unsafe to drive vehicles on.

    Seeing open water in front of McMurdo Station in the middle of winter in 2022 was shocking for us. However, despite the extremely low winter sea ice extent around most of Antarctica in 2023, sea ice in McMurdo Sound formed in a similar way to most years.

    It is not yet clear how much climate change has driven the huge anomalies in Antarctic sea ice extent or thickness, but events like these could be a harbinger of things to come.

    To have a chance of predicting these changes, we will need dramatically improved modelling capabilities, more measurements of crucial factors driving sea ice change, and new ways of making those measurements.

    Related content

    We have lots of resources on Antarctica and climate change, a few are listed below, but for more see our Antarctica and climate change topics.

    Learn more in the Hub articles Antarctica and global climate change and Climate change, melting ice and sea level rise.

    The film Thin Ice – The Inside Story of Climate Science provides a look at our planet’s changing climate, with a range of Science Learning Hub resources designed to support its use in the classroom.

    The level 3 Connected article Captured in ice describes how scientists investigate Earth’s climate and supports students to use the science capability ‘Engage with science’.

    Find out more about research into these issues in Collecting data in Antarctica and Climate action.

    See another The Conversation article looking at Antarctica tipping points and the irreversible changes to come if we fail to keep warming below 2℃.


    The article Investigating in science unpacks what this might look like in the classroom and contains the interactive Ways of investigating in science, which covers a range of scientific approaches along with helpful videos and links to practical resources, including one on modelling.

    Other scientists have used satellites to study Antarctic’s atmosphere and sea ice thickness.

    Activity ideas

    Explore the implications of melting are also visually demonstrated in the activities Melting glacial ice and Investigating sea level rise.

    Useful links

    In 2024 the Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand released a special issue New Zealand and Antarctica in a changing climate with guest editors James Renwick CRSNZ, Rebecca Priestley CRSNZ, Bruce Glavovic and Darren King.

    Find out more about some of the research mentioned in this article:

    Dr Zachary Labe’s website presents a range of climate visualizations including on the concentration, extent and thickness of Antarctica's sea-ice.

    Purich, A., Doddridge, E.W. Record low Antarctic sea ice coverage indicates a new sea ice state. Communications Earth & Environment Vol 4, 314 (2023).

    Antarctic sea ice extent graph from the National Snow and Ice Data Centre, University of Colorado Boulder, October 2023.

    Fretwell, P.T., Boutet, A. & Ratcliffe, N. Record low 2022 Antarctic sea ice led to catastrophic breeding failure of emperor penguins. Communications Earth & Environment Vol 4, 273 (2023).

    See this The Conversation article, Antarctica is missing a chunk of sea ice bigger than Greenland – what’s going on? from August 2023.

    See the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), AR6 Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2023.

    Read more in this The Conversation article, Devastatingly low Antarctic sea ice may be the ‘new abnormal', study warns from September 2023.

    Read more in this The Conversation article Fractured foundations: how Antarctica's 'landfast' ice is dwindling and why that's bad news from June 2023.

    Find out more about the University of Otago’s automated sea ice monitoring system.

    Read this BBC article Antarctic sea-ice at 'mind-blowing' low alarms experts.


    This article was written by Inga Smith (Associate Professor in Physics, University of Otago), Andrew Pauling (Research Fellow in Physics, University of Otago), Greg Leonard (Senior Lecturer in Surveying, University of Otago), Maren Elisabeth Richter (Assistant Research Fellow, University of Otago), Max Thomas (Senior Research Fellow, University of Otago), Pat Langhorne (Professor Emerita in Physics, University of Otago) and Wolfgang Rack (Associate Professor for Remote Sensing and Glaciology, University of Canterbury).

    The article was originally published in The Conversation on 26 September 2023. Read the original article.

    Rights: The Conversation

    The Conversation

    The Conversation is an independent source of news and views, sourced from the academic and research community and delivered direct to the public.

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      Published 10 November 2023 Referencing Hub articles
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