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  • Koe feliuliuaki ‘a e ‘ea ‘oku ‘uhinga ia ki he ngaahi liliu kehekehe ‘oku hoko ki he kalaimeiti (Churchward, 1959) ‘o e fo’i mamani, pea koe ngaahi liliu ko ‘eni ‘oku hoko ia ‘i ha fo’i vaha’a taimi ‘oku loloa. ‘Oku mahu’inga ‘aupito ke tau ‘uluaki ‘ilo ki he ngaahi naunau ‘oku nau fakatupu pe fo’u e kalaimeiti.

    Ko e ngaahi fakamatala ki he tukunga ‘o e ‘ea ‘i ha vaha’a taimi loloa’ (climate)  pea mo e anga ‘o e matangi ‘i he ‘aho’ (weather)

    Ko e natula ‘o e ‘ea ‘i he ‘aho (weather), ‘oku ‘uhinga ia kihe tukunga ‘o e ‘ea fakahoua pe koe ‘aho taautaha. ‘Oku kau kiai ‘a e tūkunga ‘o e ‘ea māfana (temperature), ‘uho’uha (rainfall) pea moe havilivili (wind).

    Ko e kalaimeiti, ‘oku ‘uhinga ia ki he tukunga ‘oku ‘i ai ‘a e ‘ea ‘i ha ta’u kakato ‘e taha, pea ‘oku faka’avalisi ke a’u kihe ta’u ‘e 30 pe toe lahi ange.

    ‘Oku ‘i ai ‘a e ngaahi me’a mahu’inga ‘oku malava ke nau uesia ‘a e kalaimeiti ‘o ha feitu’u. ‘Oku kau ki ai ‘a e ofi ‘o e feitu’u ko ia ki he tahi, ko e ma’olunga ‘o e feitu’u ko ia, koe halanga matangi, pea moe fa’unga moe fotunga ‘o e kelekele ‘o e feitu’u ko ia. Ko e feitu’u kotoa pe ‘oku kehekehe honau kalaimeiti, pea ‘oku kehekehe aipe mo e natula ‘o e ‘uho’uha mo e la’ala’a ‘i he feitu’u taautaha. ‘I ‘Aotealoa, ‘oku kau ‘a e fotunga pe fa’unga ‘o e kelekele ‘i he me’a mahu’inga ‘oku ne uesia ‘a e kalaimeiti ‘o e fonua. Ko e ngaahi ‘otu mo’unga ‘oku nau tokoni lahi ki hono fakamakehekehe’i ‘o e natula ‘o e kalaimeiti ‘o e feitu’u pe vahe fonua takitaha. Ko e ngaahi feitu’u hange koee ‘oku ūū mei he toka’anga matangi fakahihfo, hange ko Bay of Plenty, Marlborough mo Nelson, ‘oku tokamālie ange pea mafana lelei e ‘ea ai ‘o fakatatau ki he ngaahi feitu’u ‘i he feitu’u fakahihifo. Ko e ngaahi feitu’u ‘oku ‘i he tafa’aki fakahihifo tautefito ki he ngaahi feitu’u ofi ki tahi, ‘oku fa’a hoko ai e matangi malohi, havilivili pea mo e lahi e ‘uho’uha.

    Ko e feliuliuaki ‘a e 'ea

    Ko e ‘ea faka’aho pe ko e weather, ‘oku fa’a feliuliuaki ma’u pe ia ‘i he ‘aho takitaha.  Ko e feliuliuaki ‘o e kalaimeiti ‘oku fa’a takiekina ia ‘e he ngaahi founga fakanatula. ‘I Aotealoa, ‘oku tokoni lahi ‘a e founga fakanatula ‘oku ‘iloa he lea faka-Pilitania ko e climate oscillations ki hono fo’u pe fakafotunga e natula ‘o e ‘ea faka’aho pea mo e kalaimeiti ‘o e fonua.  Ko e climate oscilattions koe taimi ia ‘oku femaliuliuaki ai ‘i he taimi tatau ‘a e ‘ea mafana (air pressure), ‘ea mafana ‘o e tahi (sea temperature), pea moe halanga ‘o e havili. ‘Oku fa’a hoko ‘a e ngaahi femaliuliuaki ko ‘eni ‘i ‘Aotealoa, ‘oku kau ai ‘a e El Nino Southern Oscillations. Ko e El Nino Southern Oscillations, koe taimi a ‘oku fononga fakataha ai ‘a e havili mo e māfana ‘a e vai ‘i he potu tahi Pasifiki, pea ‘oku malava ke ongo’i ‘e he tokotaha kotoa ‘a e femaliuliuaki ko ‘eni ko e ‘uhi koe feliuliuaki ‘oku hoko ki he natula e taimi moe lahi e hoko ‘a e ‘uho’uha.

    Ko e ngaahi founga fakanatula  ‘oku ne fakatupunga e feliuliuaki ‘a e ‘ea ‘oku kau ki ai ‘a e anga e vilo ‘a e fo’i mamani pehe foki ki he taimi ‘oku puna ai e ngaahi mo’unga afi.

    Nature of science

    Scientists from around the globe are collaborating to gather data and add evidence-based observations to the wider climate change knowledge base. Each contribution adds another piece to a very complex puzzle.

    Ko e uēsia ‘oku fakatupunga ‘e he tangata

    ‘Oku hoko ‘a e feliuliuaki ‘a e ‘ea he ngaahi ‘aho ni ko e ola mei he ngaahi ngaue ‘oku fakahoko ‘e he tangata. Ko e ngaahi kasa kona hange koe kāponi taiokisaiti (CO2), mifeini (CH4) mo e naitoloseni ‘okisaiti (N2O). ‘Oku tokoni lahi ‘aupito ‘a e ngaahi kasakona kona ko ‘eni ki hono pukepuke ‘o e ‘ea mafana ‘i mamani, he ka ne ‘ikai e ngaahi kasa kona ko ‘eni, he’ikai ha me’a mo’ui ‘i mamani.

    Ko e lahiange ‘o e ngaahi falengaue; ngaue’aki ‘o e lolo, ngaahi me’alele mo e fefononga’aki he ‘ea,  pea mo e ngaahi ngaue kehe pe ‘a e tangata, ‘oku ne tānaki atu ‘o lahiange ‘a e kasa kona ki he ‘etimosifia. ‘Oku fakafuofua ki he ta’u ‘e 200–300 kuo ‘osi, ne kamata ai e ngaue’aki lahi ‘e he tangata ‘ae ngaahi ngaue’anga pea mo e tuku ‘o e ngaahi lolo. ‘I he ngaahi ta’u ki mui ni mai, ‘oku tupu ‘aupito ‘a e kasa kona ‘i he ‘etimosifia pea ‘oku ne uesia ai e kalaimeiti ‘o e mamani ‘oku tau ‘i ai. Ko e fu’u liliu lahi, ha’atau feinga ke toe fakafoki e founga ko ‘eni ‘oku ngaue’aki ‘e he tangata.

    ‘Oku ‘osi fakamo’oni’i ‘e he kau Saienisi ‘a e ola kovi kuo hoko tupu mei he feliuliuaki ‘a e ‘ea. ‘Oku kau heni e ngaahi liliu ‘oku malava ke tau sio tonu ai kuo hoko ‘i ‘Aotealoa ni ‘o kau ai ‘a e toe lahi ange ‘a e ‘uho’uha, pea moe toe hokohoko mo malohi ange ‘a e hoko mai ‘a e la’ala’a. Mei he ta’u 1909, ‘oku tupu ‘aki e mafana ‘a e funga ‘o e fonua e tikilii ‘e 1.1℃.

    It has been 10,000 years since the average annual temperature in New Zealand was this warm, which is likely to be near the edge of the range that current ecosystems have experienced here.

    Our atmosphere and climate 2020

    Ko e ngaahi faka’ilonga ‘oku ne tala ‘a e uēsia ‘oku fakahoko ‘e he tangata

    ‘Oku founga fēfē ‘etau ‘ilo ko e tupu makehe ‘a e kasa kona ko e ola ia ‘o e ngaue ‘a e tangata? ‘Oku ma’u ‘a e fakamatala falala’anga ‘a e kau Saienisi, ‘oku ‘i ai e founga ‘oku lava ke nau tala ‘a e kasa kona ‘oku tupu mei he founga fakanatula, pea moe kasa kona tupu mei he ngaue ‘a e tangata. Ko e kāponi ‘oku ma’u mei he ongo kasa kona ko e kāponi taiokisaiti (CO2) mo e mifeini (CH4), kuo ‘osi fakamo’oni’i ‘oku ha’u kinaua mei he tuku ‘o e lolo ‘a ia ‘oku kehe ‘aupito pe mei he kemikale ‘oku ma’u mei he kāponi ‘a ia ‘oku ma’u mei he ngaahi founga faka-natula. ‘Oku ‘osi ‘i ai pe foki e ngaahi founga kehekehe ‘oku ngaue’aki ‘e he kau Saienisi ke fakamo’oni’i koe tupu lahi ange ‘ae kasa kona ‘i he ‘etimosifia koe ola ‘a e ngaue ‘a e tangata.

    Related content

    Climate change is an incredibly complex wicked problem that links environmental issues with human wellbeing, the economy, and local and global politics. The activity Ko e feliuliuaki ‘a e ‘ea – ko e talanoa fakakoloa uses concept cartoons to encourage conversations about climate change.

    Useful links

    Read about United Nations’ Climate Change Adaptation projects in Tonga

    This video from the Tongan Broadcasting Commission explores the impacts of climate change on Tonga.

    References

    Churchward, C. M. (1959). Tongan Dictionary. Nuku'alofa, Tonga: Government Printing Press.

    Acknowledgement

    This resource was formatted and translated into Faka-Tonga by Dr ‘Elisapesi Havea.

    It is based on the article What is climate Change? The original article was produced with the support of the Ministry for the Environment and Stats NZ.

     

     

      Published 8 September 2021 Referencing Hub articles
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