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  • New Zealand has many endemic species – species that are unique to a particular place and not found anywhere else. This is not the same as being ‘native’. A species is native if it is naturally found in a particular location, but it may be found in more than one country. For example, the pūkeko is a native species in New Zealand, Europe, India and Asia, but the kākā is endemic to New Zealand. The mānuka shrub is native to both New Zealand and Australia, but the pōhutukawa is endemic to New Zealand.

    Rights: Steve Reekie


    The kākā (Nestor meridionalis) is a type of parrot, closely related to the kea, found in lowland and mid-altitude forests and was at one time quite common. Kākā are now largely limited to offshore conservation islands such as Kapiti, Codfish and Little Barrier and fenced inland sanctuaries such as ZEALANDIA and Pūkaha. Recent successful breeding in these sanctuaries has led to an increase in kākā numbers both within the sanctuaries and also in the surrounding areas.

    New Zealand ecosystems have very high numbers of endemic species – 80% of native plants are endemic, 70% of native terrestrial and freshwater birds are endemic, all the native bat, amphibian and reptile species are endemic, and 90% of native freshwater fish found here are found nowhere else in the world. If these species are lost to New Zealand, they are lost to the world.

    Ecology of New Zealand

    Dr Peter Buchanan and Dr Robert Hoare talk about New Zealand’s unique ecosystem and why so many of the species found here aren’t found anywhere else in the world.

    Native species disappearing

    Since humans colonised our land approximately 700 years ago, it is estimated that more than 50% of the bird species have become extinct and more than 75% of the forests have been removed. From the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and later European settlement, forests have been burned or cut down, species have been hunted for food, clothing and sport, and introduced species such as the kiore, rat, deer and old man’s beard have devastated the natural ecosystems.

    Since the arrival of people in approximately 1300AD, it is estimated that over three-quarters of the natural forest has been removed. This removal has meant that many habitats and food resources have disappeared. Combined with hunting, this has contributed to the decline and ultimate extinction of some species. At one time, about 14 species of moa inhabited our islands, preferring a habitat of forest and forest margins. With the arrival of settlers from Polynesia, forest was burnt and converted to grassland and moa were hunted for food – the last moa were lost around 400 years ago.

    Rights: John Megahan, CC Attribution 2.5 Generic

    Haast’s eagle

    This giant Haast’s eagle used to prey on moa. When the numbers of moa decreased, this huge predator died out forever.

    With a wingspan of up to 3 metres and claws 7.5 cm long, the giant Haast’s eagle evolved to prey on large herbivores such as the moa, but with loss of habitat in the forest and loss of its food source, the Haast’s eagle is thought to have died out about 500 years ago. Since then, another 50 bird species have been lost.

    Today, the biggest threat to New Zealand wildlife is habitat destruction and competition for resources by introduced species:

    • The impact of the rat on the flightless birds is well known.
    • Introduced wasps are destroying the resource of honeydew in native forests.
    • Cats prey on a range of birds and insects – the last ever Stephens Island wren was eaten by a pet cat.
    • Introduced plants clog waterways and compete with native species.

    Nature of science

    Scientists do not just work in isolation but they are part of teams of committed and passionate people who care about their work and its impact in society. Landcare scientists play a very important role for New Zealand as they are providing evidence about the species that are here now, were here in the past and might be lost in the future.

    Our conservation challenge

    Our species are special, with many of them still unknown and undiscovered, and New Zealand faces a huge conservation challenge. The government and scientists are working together to form strategies to preserve our hidden treasures.

    One strategy is to create protected ‘islands’ where predators have been removed and are prevented from returning. Some are actual islands at sea, out of reach from reinvasion by predators such as rats, stoats and cats. Others are located on the mainland, such as Zealandia in Wellington – these onshore or mainland ‘islands’ are fenced in special netting and monitored for the invasion of predators.

    Rights: Judi Lapsley Miller CC-BY-4.0


    ZEALANDIA in the heart of Wellington City was concevied in 1995 and opened in 2000 after the erection of an 8.6 kilometre long predator proof-fence. The sanctuary has a 500 year plan to restore the reserve to how it would have appeared before humans arrived in New Zealand. It is already home to many endangered species of birds, plants and animals such as saddleback, tuatara, giant wētā and little spotted kiwi.

    On both onshore and offshore islands, threatened species like the kiwi, the tuatara and the wētā can be protected to live and breed successfully.

    For many species, it is a race against time. Trying to preserve entire ecosystems is difficult but necessary if the amazing range of species endemic to New Zealand are not going to be lost forever.

    Predator Free 2050 is an ambitious goal to rid New Zealand of the most damaging introduced predators that threaten our nation’s natural taonga, our economy and primary sector.

    Citizen science – a call to action

    Citizen science projects provide opportunities for everyone – including school students – to help protect our endemic species. Projects can be online, in which participants analyse and interpret data collected by an organisation. Projects can also be in the field, in which participants monitor marine and/or terrestrial organisms, and contribute to our knowledge of species abundance and distribution.

    Related PLD content

    Our recorded webinars feature Department of Conservation and Hub resources. They offer information on how to support student inquiry and conservation action.

    Related content

    In 2023 Forest & Bird included 5 extinct species in its annual Bird of the Year competition, read why this was important in Call of the huia: how NZ’s bird of the century contest helps us express ‘ecological grief’. Find out about why our vote went to the huia.

      Published 30 April 2009, Updated 17 August 2023 Referencing Hub articles
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