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ARTICLE

Relative dating

Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. The method of reading the order is called stratigraphy (layers of rock are called strata) ...

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What are ceramics?

A ceramic is an inorganic non-metallic solid made up of either metal or non-metal compounds that have been shaped and then hardened by heating to high temperatures. In general, they are hard ...

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What is clay?

Since the earliest times, humankind has had a close association with clay. From use as a building material, in pottery, for treating human digestive ailments to a multitude of industrial uses ...

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Non-renewable energy sources

Energy comes from many sources, and to describe these sources we use two terms: renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewable energy resources cannot be replaced – once they are used up, they will ...

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Renewable energy sources

Renewable energy is fuel that comes from a source that can be replenished in a short amount of time. This includes solar, wind, water, geothermal power and bioenergy. While renewable energy ...

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TEACHER PLD

Linking ideas, activities and lessons

In the primary classroom, even though teachers and students generally spend the day together, it cannot be assumed that students will experience their learning as coherent, connected or ...

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Energy sources through time – timeline

Use this timeline to explore how humans have relied on fossil fuels in the past and how we are looking for, and using, new energy sources. 200,000 BC - Fire used Records of the first controlled ...

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Bioplastics

Bioplastics are plastic materials that are either biodegradable or derived from renewable resources or both. Currently, petrochemical-based plastics make up 99% of the plastics market. However ...

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Storage in the water cycle

Scientists generally agree that the amount of water on Earth is finite, and that the water cycle constantly recycles water through the Earth’s systems. But how long does this take? How long does ...

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Middens

In the past, people threw out their rubbish in particular sites much as we do today. These sites are called middens and are the archaeological treasure troves of how people used to live. Middens ...

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Composite materials

Composite materials (composites) are made when two or more materials with different properties are combined to produce a new material. The physical and chemical properties of each of the ...

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Nuclear energy

For many people, the term ‘nuclear energy’ is associated with negative events and feelings. However, it is important to be informed about any topic before developing your own conclusions. What is ...

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Using solar energy

Solar energy is transformed into other energy forms for our use on Earth – energy for food (chemical energy), electrical energy and heat energy. Food Solar energy (sunlight) is crucial for our ...

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Uses for advanced ceramics

Advanced ceramics have an amazing range of properties and uses. They can be designed and engineered to solve just about any problem or challenge we face. The discovery of electricity, early ...

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New Zealand’s National Science Challenges

As New Zealanders looking to the future, we are faced with many opportunities – and challenges. These include improving the health of all our people, advancing our economic growth, protecting our ...

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Farming development and changing landscapes

Farming is a way of life in New Zealand. Farms cover about half of the country’s land and are important to our economy. Agriculture has shaped who we are as a nation, but it has also had a big ...

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Hydro power

Hydro power uses water to generate electricity. Most hydro electricity is generated from fresh water, but there is also marine-generated electricity that uses the movement of waves. Rivers flow ...

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Solar cars

Solar cars are powered by electricity through the use of solar energy. Solar panels are attached to the surface (generally, the top) of the vehicle. Photovoltaic (PV) cells convert the Sun's ...

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