The body’s first line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/177-the-body-s-first-line-of-defence
Your body has a two-line defence system against pathogens (germs) that make you sick. Pathogens ...

The phosphorus cycle

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/961-the-phosphorus-cycle
Phosphorus is a chemical element found on Earth in numerous compound forms, such as the ...

Bacterial DNA – the role of plasmids

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However ...

The body’s second line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/178-the-body-s-second-line-of-defence
If the pathogens are able to get past the first line of defence, for example, through a cut in ...

Bacteria – good, bad and ugly

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/588-bacteria-good-bad-and-ugly
Bacteria range from the essential and useful, to the harmful. Essential bacteria Without the ...

Bacterial transformation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2032-bacterial-transformation
Bacteria are commonly used as host cells for making copies of DNA in the lab because they are ...

E. coli – the biotech bacterium

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1899-e-coli-the-biotech-bacterium
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short) is crucial in modern biotechnology ...

How to add foreign DNA to bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to ...

What is silage?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2006-what-is-silage
Silage is preserved pasture. Making silage is an important way for farmers to feed cows and ...

Microorganisms – friend or foe?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/176-microorganisms-friend-or-foe
We can’t see them. We can’t hear them or feel them, but they are with us. There are 10 trillion ...

Creating different cheese characteristics

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/829-creating-different-cheese-characteristics
Cheese comes in numerous varieties of different styles, textures and flavours, but it’s all ...

Proteins – what they are and how they’re made

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1901-proteins-what-they-are-and-how-they-re-made
Proteins are the key working molecules and building blocks in all cells. They are produced in a ...

Soil formation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/955-soil-formation
New Zealand has a wide variety of landscapes. A day’s sightseeing journey might include ...

New Zealand’s unique ecology

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1440-new-zealand-s-unique-ecology
New Zealand has a rich and unique range of plants, animals and fungi. The level of distinctive ...

Producing foreign proteins in bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1959-producing-foreign-proteins-in-bacteria
Bacteria can produce foreign proteins from introduced genes, using their own gene expression ...

Virus strains

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/184-virus-strains
A virus is a very simple thing – a coat of protein wrapped around some genetic code (DNA or ...

The science of cheese

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/827-the-science-of-cheese
Cheesemaking is the controlled process of removing water from milk. This process concentrates ...

Spreading diseases

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/192-spreading-diseases
In this activity, students model how a virus spreads through a group. By the end of this ...

Bacteria in biotech – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1957-bacteria-in-biotech-introduction
Find out how and why we use bacteria to improve our lives, and discover how the DNA revolution ...

Introduction to cells

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/186-introduction-to-cells
In this activity, students are introduced to cells. They learn that we are made up of cells ...

Growing fungi on bread

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1452-growing-fungi-on-bread
In this activity, students design a simple investigation to explore the conditions that ...

The history of vaccination

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/181-the-history-of-vaccination
Long before anybody understood anything about vaccination, it was noticed that, if people ...

Make your own silage

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2005-make-your-own-silage
Find out how students can make silage at school. You will need (per student group) A large ...

Fighting infection – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/165-fighting-infection-introduction
We all get sick from time to time. Wintertime, in particular, brings with it colds and flus ...
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