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ARTICLE

Preparing samples for the electron microscope

Electron microscopes are very powerful tools for visualising biological samples. They enable scientists to view cells, tissues and small organisms in very great detail. However, these biological ...

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Impacts of biotechnology on society

Biotechnology has helped improve the quality of people’s lives for over 10,000 years. Today’s biotechnologies vary in application and complexity. However, they all have potential to change our ...

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ARTICLE

Modern biotechnology

The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led to a new era of modern biotechnology. New Zealand has many applications for modern biotechnologies ...

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ARTICLE

Using isotopes as tracers

Radioactive isotopes have many useful applications in a wide variety of situations, for example, they can be used within a plant or animal to follow the movement of certain chemicals. In ...

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Digestion chemistry – introduction

Food plays an extremely important part in the lives of all humans. After ingestion, the food is mechanically broken down into smaller pieces and then chemically digested through the action of ...

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ARTICLE

Xenotransplantation – introduction

Xenotransplantation is when living cells, tissues or organs are transplanted between species. To be successful in humans, xenotransplants must overcome issues of transplant rejection ...

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History of xenotransplantation

Xenotransplantation was attempted unsuccessfully in the early 1900s. Several key research developments over the last 100 years now mean that the first xenotransplant treatments could be available ...

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Stem cell research – timeline

The last 10 years have seen a huge increase in research into stem cells, but when did it all begin? 1956 First successful bone marrow transplant between a related donor and recipient is performed ...

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ARTICLE

Xenotransplantation – timeline

This timeline features some of the key events in xenotransplantation from the early 1900s until 2017. 1902 – Reconnecting blood vessels for organ transplants Alexis Carrel at the Rockefeller ...

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ARTICLE

How honey heals wounds

All honeys have properties that help them heal wounds. But how do they do this, and what’s so unique about Mānuka honey? The problem with wounds In normal situations, like a cut finger or a ...

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ARTICLE

What is biotechnology?

‘Biotechnology’ generally refers to the use of a living organism or part of a living organism or process for a specific purpose. This broad definition includes both modern and ancient ...

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Bone marrow transplants – timeline

Bone marrow transplants are now routinely carried out worldwide to treat people with life-threatening blood disorders, but back in the 1950s, bone marrow transplants could only be done when the ...

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X-ray imaging

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. They strike an object and, depending on the density of the object, some of the X-rays will be absorbed. X-rays that aren’t absorbed pass through ...

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ACTIVITY

Antibacterial effects of honey - experiment

Honey is antibacterial and can prevent growth of most types of bacteria. This experiment compares the effect of different types of honey on bacteria growing on agar plates. Purpose To compare the ...

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ARTICLE

New Zealand’s National Science Challenges

As New Zealanders looking to the future, we are faced with many opportunities – and challenges. These include improving the health of all our people, advancing our economic growth, protecting our ...

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ARTICLE

Using PCR in medicine

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of a target piece of DNA. It is an indispensable tool in modern molecular biology and has transformed scientific research ...

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ARTICLE

Stem cells

How does a complex organism, like a person, develop from a single cell? Stem cell research is providing the answer to this question and many more. What are stem cells? Stem cells are cells that ...

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ARTICLE

Ethics and xenotransplantation

Xenotransplantation entails transplanting cells or organs (for example pancreatic cells, a heart or a kidney) from an individual of one species into an individual of another species ...

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ARTICLE

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Microbiology started with Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms and includes the fields of bacteriology, virology and mycology. Van ...

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Bone marrow transplantation

Did you know that bone marrow contains adult stem cells? In fact, bone marrow transplants are the first example of a successful stem cell therapy and have been used to treat people with life ...

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