• Articles
  • Activities
  • Interactives
  • Videos
  • Teacher PLD
  • Primary
  • Secondary
ARTICLE

How elements are formed

Our world is made of elements and combinations of elements called compounds. An element is a pure substance made of atoms that are all of the same type. At present, 116 elements are known, and ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Classification system

In the 18th century, Carl Linnaeus published a system for classifying living things, which has been developed into the modern classification system. People have always given names to things that ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Mendel’s principles of inheritance

Our understanding of how inherited traits are passed between generations comes from principles first proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1866. Mendel worked on pea plants, but his principles apply to ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Absolute dating

Geologists often need to know the age of material that they find. They use absolute dating methods, sometimes called numerical dating, to give rocks an actual date, or date range, in number of ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Relative dating

Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. The method of reading the order is called stratigraphy (layers of rock are called strata) ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Development of the periodic table

Although elements such as gold, silver, tin, copper, lead and mercury have been known since earliest times, the first scientific discovery of an element occurred in 1649. Hennig Brand, a German ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Principles of flight

For thousands of years, people have wanted to fly. Our legends and fairy tales are full of humans and animals that can fly – effortlessly gliding through the air. In real life, of course, no one ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Brief history of rockets – timeline

This timeline looks at some of the historical aspects of rockets - taking science and technology to new heights. 1232 - Chinese fire arrows The first true rocket is invented by the Chinese. Fire ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Impacts of biotechnology on society

Biotechnology has helped improve the quality of people’s lives for over 10,000 years. Today’s biotechnologies vary in application and complexity. However, they all have potential to change our ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Mendel’s experiments

Mendel is known as the father of genetics because of his ground-breaking work on inheritance in pea plants 150 years ago. Gregor Johann Mendel was a monk and teacher with interests in astronomy ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

How microscopes magnify

A microscope is something that uses a lens or lenses to make small objects look bigger and to show more detail. This means that a magnifying glass can count as a microscope! It also means that ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Feathers and flight

A bird is designed for flight. The combination of light weight, strength and shape, as well as precision control, is largely responsible for giving birds their special ability for sustained ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Modern biotechnology

The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led to a new era of modern biotechnology. New Zealand has many applications for modern biotechnologies ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

A progression of flight - timeline

Use this timeline to find out more about the progression of flight in human history. 1000 BCE - First kites Kites are invented in China. 852 BCE - A king tries to fly The English King Bladud is ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Our Solar System – revolutionary ideas

Since the earliest times, humans have made observations of the night sky. These observations, particularly of the Earth, Moon, Sun and planets (visible to the naked eye), led to the development ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Ancient biotechnology

Early examples of biotechnology include breeding animals and crops, and using microorganisms to make cheese, yoghurt, bread, beer and wine. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as purposefully ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Metals, alloys and metal compounds

From titanium implants to new superconducting alloys to useful metal compounds, we are increasingly dependent on metals. Without metals, modern civilisation would literally collapse. About 80% of ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

History of xenotransplantation

Xenotransplantation was attempted unsuccessfully in the early 1900s. Several key research developments over the last 100 years now mean that the first xenotransplant treatments could be available ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Wings and lift

For a plane or bird to fly, its wings must produce enough lift to equal its weight. Most wings used in flight are a special shape – called aerofoils (or airfoils). This shape is needed to help ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Xenotransplantation – introduction

Xenotransplantation is when living cells, tissues or organs are transplanted between species. To be successful in humans, xenotransplants must overcome issues of transplant rejection ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

History of microscopy – timeline

Microscopes let us view an invisible world – the objects around us that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This timeline provides a look at some of the key advances in microscopy. ~710 ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Date a dinosaur

Dinosaurs used to live in New Zealand. We know this because their fossils have been found in a few places. The fossils of a number of different dinosaurs were found at the Mangahouanga Stream, in ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Stem cell research – timeline

The last 10 years have seen a huge increase in research into stem cells, but when did it all begin? 1956 First successful bone marrow transplant between a related donor and recipient is performed ...

READ MORE
STAR