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ARTICLE

Food’s journey through the digestive system

A look at the time it takes for food to pass through the gut from mouth to anus. In a healthy adult, transit time is about 24–72 hours. Read the article The human digestive system for further ...

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ARTICLE

Macronutrients

Nutrients are substances needed for growth, energy provision and other body functions. Macronutrients are those nutrients required in large amounts that provide the energy needed to maintain body ...

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ARTICLE

Fruit enzyme uses

Enzymes extracted from fruits like papaya, pineapple, kiwifruit and fig have uses as medicines, food-processing agents and dietary supplements. Fruits contain enzymes Fruits like papaya ...

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ARTICLE

Creating different cheese characteristics

Cheese comes in numerous varieties of different styles, textures and flavours, but it’s all made from the same basic ingredient – milk. So what are the differences and how are they created ...

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ARTICLE

Unlocking the energy in foods

The foods we eat supply the energy needed by the body to drive its complex chemical, mechanical and electrical systems. Where does this energy come from, how is it locked into food molecules and ...

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ARTICLE

The science of cheese

Cheesemaking is the controlled process of removing water from milk. This process concentrates the milk’s protein, fat and other nutrients and increases its shelf life. Cheesemaking is one of the ...

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ARTICLE

Breeding red-fleshed apples – introduction

Find out how and why a red-fleshed apple variety is being bred in New Zealand, and discover how genetic information, consumer research and sensory science are all involved. Red-fleshed apples – ...

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ARTICLE

Economic impacts of GM crops

Can farmers make a profit from growing genetically modified (GM) food crops? Economic modelling can be used to weigh up different factors that influence the profits that can be gained from ...

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ARTICLE

Sensing food

An instant impression is made with the first bite of a new food or taste of drink. Sensory analysis takes us past this first response, examining how the food’s properties stimulate each of our ...

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ARTICLE

Genes and lactose intolerance

In New Zealand, we drink a lot of milk, so you might be surprised to learn that most adults in the world are lactose intolerant and can’t consume dairy products. Inheriting lactose intolerance ...

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ARTICLE

Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals are naturally occurring, biologically active chemical compounds in plants. The prefix ‘phyto’ is from a Greek word meaning plant. The presence of certain types of phytochemicals in ...

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ARTICLE

A genetic test for lactose intolerance

A genetic test for lactose intolerance has been devised by researchers at the Canterbury Health Laboratories in Christchurch. Lactose intolerance is common Most of the world’s population (about ...

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ARTICLE

Food function and structure – introduction

We all eat food because it provides the fundamental types of materials required to keep our bodies functioning. These materials can be categorised as: macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins ...

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ARTICLE

Manufacturing Gouda cheese

Gouda is a semi-hard Dutch cheese. A Hamilton-based artisan cheese factory makes traditional Gouda using milk directly from the adjoining farm. Discover how each step in the manufacturing process ...

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ARTICLE

Taewa (Māori potatoes)

Taewa are traditional potato varieties grown by early Māori settlers in New Zealand. Find out how researchers are now developing unique food products from taewa. Taewa were introduced to New ...

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Dietary fibre

Dietary fibre is the portion of fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains we eat that is resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. However, bacteria that live in the large intestine ...

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ARTICLE

A1 or A2 milk?

Cows' milk contains a protein called beta casein, which comes in several forms depending on the genetic makeup of the cow - but what is the difference, and why does it matter? Molecules in milk ...

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ARTICLE

Treating lactose intolerance

Imagine if you felt ill every time you drank milk. People who are lactose intolerant have exactly this problem, and biotechnology is finding ways to help them. Lactose is milk sugar Lactose is a ...

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ARTICLE

GM food and New Zealand consumers

What is the response of New Zealand consumers to genetically modified (GM) foods? Will they pay extra for genetically enhanced foods? Will they buy GM foods if they are cheaper than non-GM foods ...

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ARTICLE

Food poisoning

The food we eat can poison us. There are over 200 known diseases that can be transmitted by food. Bacteria or viruses are the main cause of food poisoning. Food poisoning is usually the result of ...

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ARTICLE

The chemistry of croissants

Breads and pastries that you make at home never taste the same as the ones you buy from a shop. This is because a whole range of additional ingredients are usually added to commercial products to ...

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ACTIVITY

A comparison of home-made marinades

In this experiment, students measure and compare the protein-digesting activity of five fruits or vegetables commonly used in marinades. This would suit years 9–12 and needs to be left overnight ...

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