• Articles
  • Activities
  • Interactives
  • Videos
  • Teacher PLD
  • Primary
  • Secondary
ARTICLE

Antarctic life and ecosystems

Antarctica – a land of extremes Antarctica is the highest, whitest, driest, coldest and windiest continent on Earth. It’s so cold that creatures often retreat to the sea to warm up. Add 24 hours ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Icy ecosystems – introduction

Antarctica is the coldest, driest, windiest and highest continent on Earth. What makes the frozen continent so valuable to scientists and vulnerable to human contact? Every year, scientists and ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Insulation

In Antarctica, winter temperatures can vary from -70ºC to -15ºC – it is one of the coldest places to live on earth. To survive in the Antarctic, keeping warm becomes a very important focus, and ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Continental drift

The Earth’s continents have not always been where they are at present. If you look at a map of the world, you might notice what Alfred Wegener noticed – that the continents look as if they could ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Climate change, melting ice and sea level rise

One implication of climate change is sea level rise. Sea level is the average height of the ocean relative to the land, between the high and low tides. The rising global temperature is causing ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Antarctic marine ecosystem

The Antarctic ecosystem is unique in that the food chains are very short and often based on the availability of krill, which is vital for all animal life forms living in Antarctica. The waters ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Astronomical cycles

Ice caps have come and gone over the Earth’s surface for many millions of years. What has caused the cyclical warming and cooling of our planet. In the 1920s and 1930s, Milutin Milankovitch, a ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Why is Antarctica so cold?

During winter, the average temperature in the South Pole is -60°C, but in the North Pole it is -30°C. Why is there such a difference? Three factors come together, resulting in the cold world we ...

READ MORE
STAR
ACTIVITY

Animal and plant adaptations

In this activity, students learn about animal and plant adaptations in Antarctic species and use these ideas to design their own unique animal or plant. By the end of this activity, students ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem

Antarctica is not just a land of ice and snow – it is the coldest, driest climate on earth. When we say the word ‘desert’, we might imagine sand and camels, but in fact a desert is any place that ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

New Zealand’s National Science Challenges

As New Zealanders looking to the future, we are faced with many opportunities – and challenges. These include improving the health of all our people, advancing our economic growth, protecting our ...

READ MORE
STAR
TEACHER PLD

Climate change resources – planning pathways

Climate change is one of the world’s big issues. It is also a big topic to tackle in the classroom. The Hub’s planning pathways interactive suggests ways in which climate change can be broken ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Seals

Seals are marine mammals found the world over. Characterised by their torpedo shape, seals are intelligent and playful animals. Antarctica is home to different seal species, each sharing a basic ...

READ MORE
STAR
ACTIVITY

Water temperature

In this activity, students look at what happens when hot and cold water meet. By the end of this activity, students should be able to: discuss how temperature affects the density of water discuss ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Climate models

Climate affects our lives, and it will continue to affect our future. But how do we know what might change over time? Scientists often use models to represent and test ideas and processes. A ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Penguins

At first glance, there isn’t much of a family resemblance between penguins and other birds. In fact, in many ways, penguins seem closer to fish! They are flightless, have flippers and spend more ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Working with water and ice

Observing and asking questions are essential parts of what a scientist does. Through their observations, scientists try to build more accurate explanations of how the world works. The scientists ...

READ MORE
STAR
ARTICLE

Icebergs

Icebergs are thick masses of ice floating in the ocean. They form when large chunks of ice break off a glacier or an ice shelf and float free in the sea. This is called calving. Many new icebergs ...

READ MORE
STAR