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  • This article defines misinformation, malinformation and disinformation – how they are used in online media, with examples of each. It also delves into the human brain and how it deals with information and fake news.

    The article suggests strategies that students can use to evaluate information sources and whether the information is worth sharing. It also has illustrations that are ideal for starting discussions about how information is conveyed through online media.

    Teacher support material

    Check your school resource area for the article from the 2019 level 4 Connected journal Seeing Beyond, download it as a Google slide presentation or order it from the Ministry of Education.

    The teacher support material (TSM) can be downloaded from TKI (Word and PDF files available). It has three learning activities that support exploring technology, science and social science aspects of the New Zealand Curriculum – Positive digital citizens, The bigger picture and The myth of scientific objectivity – along with resource links.

    Related content

    Climate change, science and controversy looks at fake facts – from Galileo to the present.

    Wicked problems – those that are incredibly complicated to solve – are often supported by fake facts. Use one of these as a context for exploring misinformation, malinformation and disinformation:

    The Hub has an Ethics thinking toolkit and there are several related articles on the Science Learning Hub designed specifically to support teachers in exploring ethical thinking with their students. These include Frameworks for ethical analysis and Teaching ethics.

    Use the article Participating and Contributing strand to find more examples of socio-scientific issues/resources and how to include them into a science programme.

    Check out our entire range of Connected articles here. We’ve curated them by topic and concepts.

    Useful links

    In this article from The Spinoff, Siouxsie Wiles and Toby Morris have tips to help learn the difference between information, misinformation and disinformation.

    Maps shape our understanding of world events like the COVID-19 pandemic. This article from The Conversation, looks how to make sure they don't mislead you: Can I trust this map? 4 questions to ask when you see a map of the coronavirus pandemic.

    The Connected journals can be ordered from the Down the Back of the Chair website. Access to these resources is restricted to Ministry-approved education providers. To find out if you are eligible for a login or if you have forgotten your login details, contact their customer services team on 0800 660 662 or email


    The Connected series is published annually by the Ministry of Education, New Zealand.


      Published 20 March 2020 Referencing Hub articles
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