The last 10 years have seen a huge increase in research into stem cells, but when did it all begin?
First successful bone marrow transplant between a related donor and recipient is performed by Dr E Thomas in New York. The patient, who has leukaemia, is given radiotherapy and then treated with healthy bone marrow from an identical twin.
Researchers discover bone marrow contains at least two kinds of stem cells – blood or haematopoietic stem cells that form all the types of blood cells in the body and stromal stem cells that form bone, cartilage, fat, and connective tissue.
First research report to indicate that the brain may generate new nerve cells is published, but not widely accepted.
For further information, see article: Stem cell therapy – a bird-brain idea?
British scientist Robert Edwards and his student, Barry Bavister, became the first to fertilise a human egg in the test tube. This is the beginning of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) technologies.
First bone marrow transplant for non-cancer treatment. Dr Robert Good uses a bone marrow transplant to treat an eight year old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID). The donor is an HLA-matched sister.
First bone marrow transplant between unrelated patients. A five year old patient in New York with SCID is treated with multiple infusions of bone marrow from a donor in Denmark.
The first IVF baby is born in England.
Blood stem cells are discovered in human umbilical cord blood.
Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived for the first time from the inner cell mass of a mouse blastocyst and grown in vitro.
1984 - 1998
Pluripotent stem cells are isolated. When exposed to retinoic acid, these cells differentiate into neuron-like cells and other cell types.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is developed – a method where a single stem cell can be removed from an IVF embryo and tested for inherited diseases.
Bone marrow donor programme initiated.
Dr Thomas receives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering work on bone marrow transplants.
Scientists at the University of Wisconsin derive the first embryonic stem cells from non-human primates.
Scientists at the University of Wisconsin, led by James Thompson, isolate and grow the first stem cells from human embryos. The embryos used in these studies were created by IVF.
Researchers discover that stem cells can be made to differentiate into different cell types.
President George W Bush permits federal funding of embryonic stem cell research, but only on the 64 existing stem cell lines.
Researchers in South Korea claim to be the first to clone a human embryo and then harvest the stem cells for research. The research is later found to have been fabricated.
California becomes the first state in the USA to provide its own fund for embryonic stem cell research.
George W Bush’s restrictions on embryonic stem cell research are loosened.
President Barack Obama reverses George W Bush's executive order and issues a replacement order removing barriers for research.
The US FDA gives approval to test human embryonic stem cell treatments for degenerative eye disease.
The world's first stem cell burger, grown from cow muscle cells, is cooked and eaten. The 142 g patty took 3 months to create.
US and Japanese researchers discover that "any cell can be potentially rewound to a pre-embryonic state" using a short, simple technique.
The cost of a lab-grown burger drops from USD$325,000 per patty to a more reasonable USD$11.36.
Japanese scientists grow and transplant a functioning kidney into a living organism.
Lab-grown mouse eggs result in 11 apparently healthy live births. The research began with more than 300 embryos.