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ARTICLE

Seed dispersal

Plants make seeds that can grow into new plants, but if the seeds just fall to the ground under the parent plant, they might not get enough sun, water or nutrients from the soil. Because plants ...

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ARTICLE

Plant reproduction without seeds

Not every plant grows from a seed. Some plants, like ferns and mosses, grow from spores. Other plants use asexual vegetative reproduction and grow new plants from rhizomes or tubers. We can also ...

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ARTICLE

Plant reproduction

Scientists divide plants into two main groups depending on whether they reproduce by seeds or spores. Plants that reproduce by seeds Seed plants have special structures on them where male and ...

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ARTICLE

Methods of pollination

Flowering plants need to get pollen from one flower to another, either within a plant for self-pollination or between plants of the same species for cross-pollination to occur. However, pollen ...

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ARTICLE

Breeding a new apple cultivar

Breeding a new apple cultivar takes a long time and involves many steps. The aim is to produce high-quality fruit that consumers will like and want to buy. Breeding apples to increase quality The ...

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ARTICLE

The seed-flower life cycle

Humans have many reasons to grow plants. We use them for food, for building materials, for pleasure and for many other purposes. A plant really just has one reason to grow – to reproduce and make ...

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ARTICLE

Breeding red-fleshed apples – introduction

Find out how and why a red-fleshed apple variety is being bred in New Zealand, and discover how genetic information, consumer research and sensory science are all involved. Red-fleshed apples – ...

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ARTICLE

Genetic information and apple breeding

Information about apple genetics is helping breeders at Plant & Food Research in New Zealand to breed new apple cultivars faster and more efficiently. Selectively breeding new apple cultivars ...

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ACTIVITY

Matching seeds and fruits

In this activity, students use activity cards to match seeds with the fruits from which they grow. They learn that a seed will produce the same type of plant and seeds. By the end of this ...

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ACTIVITY

Woolly sock walk

In this activity, students learn about seed dispersal by walking through a paddock or area of long grass and plants while wearing woolly socks. By the end of this activity, students should be ...

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ARTICLE

Taewa (Māori potatoes)

Taewa are traditional potato varieties grown by early Māori settlers in New Zealand. Find out how researchers are now developing unique food products from taewa. Taewa were introduced to New ...

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ARTICLE

Pollination – question bank

An inquiry approach is a method often used in science education. The question bank provides an initial list of questions about pollination and places where their answers can be found. The article ...

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TEACHER PLD

Living World – Life cycles

Here are links to Science Learning Hub resources for primary teachers related to life cycles in the Living World strand of the New Zealand Curriculum.  Explore the life cycles of butterflies ...

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ARTICLE

Why breed a red-fleshed apple?

A new apple cultivar with red skin and red flesh is being developed at Plant & Food Research. Discover how the idea came about and why it may appeal to consumers. Plant & Food Research ...

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ARTICLE

Sequencing the apple genome

The genome sequence of the Golden Delicious apple was published in 2010. It sheds light on the history of the apple and should make apple breeding faster and more accurate. What’s in a genome? A ...

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ARTICLE

Discovering what controls apple flesh colour

What determines whether an apple has red flesh? Find out how researchers at Plant & Food Research discovered the genetic basis of red flesh colour. Red-fleshed apples contain much more red ...

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ARTICLE

The germplasm collection: a library of apples

A collection of apple genetic resources, known as a germplasm collection, is maintained by Plant & Food Research at their Hawke’s Bay orchard to provide a source of new apple traits for the ...

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ARTICLE

The cultural value of taewa (Māori potatoes)

Māori have grown taewa in New Zealand for over 200 years. Taewa are a taonga, or treasure, with significant historical and cultural value. The potato originated in South America over 2,000 years ...

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ACTIVITY

Common foods and plant parts

In this activity, students relate commonly eaten foods to different parts of the flowering plant life cycle. They use a graphic organiser to identify whether a food is a root, stem, leaf, flower ...

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