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ARTICLE

Seed dispersal

Plants make seeds that can grow into new plants, but if the seeds just fall to the ground under the parent plant, they might not get enough sun, water or nutrients from the soil. Because plants ...

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ARTICLE

Pollination and fertilisation

Sexual reproduction is a way of making a new individual by joining two special sex cells, called gametes. In the sexual reproduction of animals and plants, the male and female gametes join to ...

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ARTICLE

Plant reproduction without seeds

Not every plant grows from a seed. Some plants, like ferns and mosses, grow from spores. Other plants use asexual vegetative reproduction and grow new plants from rhizomes or tubers. We can also ...

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ARTICLE

Flowering plant life cycles

The flowers and fruit of flowering plants come and go as part of their life cycle. Some flowering plants don’t even have stems and leaves all the time. The fruit and vegetables we eat come from ...

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ARTICLE

Attracting pollinators

Flowering plants need to get pollen from one flower to another, either within a plant for self-pollination or between plants of the same species for cross-pollination to occur. However, pollen ...

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ARTICLE

Plant reproduction

Scientists divide plants into two main groups depending on whether they reproduce by seeds or spores. Plants that reproduce by seeds Seed plants have special structures on them where male and ...

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ARTICLE

Methods of pollination

Flowering plants need to get pollen from one flower to another, either within a plant for self-pollination or between plants of the same species for cross-pollination to occur. However, pollen ...

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ARTICLE

Seed-bearing plants

Plants are living: They grow and die. They produce new individuals. They are made of cells. They need energy, nutrients, air and water. They respond to their environment. Plants are different to ...

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The seed-flower life cycle

Humans have many reasons to grow plants. We use them for food, for building materials, for pleasure and for many other purposes. A plant really just has one reason to grow – to reproduce and make ...

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ARTICLE

Kiwifruit pollination problems

Next time you eat a kiwifruit, cut it in half and look at it before taking a bite. Look for the little seeds – most kiwifruit have about 1,000, so you can’t miss them. To get seeds in a ...

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ARTICLE

Flower parts

Most flowers have the same basic parts, even though they come in all sorts of shapes, sizes and colours. Flowers are there to make sure that pollination and fertilisation take place, so that ...

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ARTICLE

Avocado pollination

Getting good crops of avocados in New Zealand is not always easy, and pollination is part of the problem. The avocado is a fruit tree introduced to New Zealand from Central America. It likes warm ...

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ACTIVITY

Plant parts

In this activity, students relate commonly eaten foods to different parts of the flowering plant life cycle. They use an interactive or paper-based graphic organiser.   By the end of this ...

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ACTIVITY

Matching seeds and fruits

In this activity, students use activity cards to match seeds with the fruits from which they grow. They learn that a seed will produce the same type of plant and seeds. By the end of this ...

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ARTICLE

Pollination – introduction

Flowers are not on plants just to make them look pretty. They are there as a vital part of a flowering plant’s life cycle. Not all plants have flowers, find out what flowering plants are and how ...

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ARTICLE

Pollinating kiwifruit

What usually happens when you cut up a piece of fruit to eat or to put in a salad? If it is an apple, a pear, a peach or a plum, you probably cut out the seeds and put them in the compost bin ...

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Pollination – question bank

An inquiry approach is a method often used in science education. The question bank provides an initial list of questions about pollination and places where their answers can be found. The article ...

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ARTICLE

Honey bee heroes

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the most important pollinators of many cultivated food crops and other flowering plants. These plants would be in trouble without bees, and so would we. Flowers ...

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TEACHER PLD

Junior science

These science resources – written specifically for the junior school (level 1 and 2) develop science ideas about water; melting and freezing; solids, liquids and gases; bubbles; earthquakes ...

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ACTIVITY

Woolly sock walk

In this activity, students learn about seed dispersal by walking through a paddock or area of long grass and plants while wearing woolly socks. By the end of this activity, students should be ...

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