The body’s first line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/177-the-body-s-first-line-of-defence
Your body has a two-line defence system against pathogens (germs) that make you sick. Pathogens ...

Bacterial DNA – the role of plasmids

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However ...

The body’s second line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/178-the-body-s-second-line-of-defence
If the pathogens are able to get past the first line of defence, for example, through a cut in ...

E. coli – the biotech bacterium

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1899-e-coli-the-biotech-bacterium
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short) is crucial in modern biotechnology ...

How to add foreign DNA to bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to ...

Large intestine function

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1832-large-intestine-function
Recent research has revealed that the large intestine and its resident bacterial population ...

Digestion – breaking the large into the small

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1830-digestion-breaking-the-large-into-the-small
Digestion of food involves both physical and chemical processes. Through digestion, large food ...

The human digestive system

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1829-the-human-digestive-system
The human digestive system consists of a long muscular tube and several accessory organs such ...

Modern biotechnology

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1206-modern-biotechnology
The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led ...

Microorganisms – friend or foe?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/176-microorganisms-friend-or-foe
We can’t see them. We can’t hear them or feel them, but they are with us. There are 10 trillion ...

Rate of digestion

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1834-rate-of-digestion
Digestion of food involves chemical reactions that break up large food molecules into their ...

Hormonal control of digestion

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1836-hormonal-control-of-digestion
It has now been well established that gut hormones have a key role in controlling food intake ...

Digestion chemistry – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1826-digestion-chemistry-introduction
Food plays an extremely important part in the lives of all humans. After ingestion, the food is ...

History of xenotransplantation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1214-history-of-xenotransplantation
Xenotransplantation was attempted unsuccessfully in the early 1900s. Several key research ...

Xenotransplantation – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1213-xenotransplantation-introduction
Xenotransplantation is when living cells, tissues or organs are transplanted between species ...

Proteins – what they are and how they’re made

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1901-proteins-what-they-are-and-how-they-re-made
Proteins are the key working molecules and building blocks in all cells. They are produced in a ...

Producing foreign proteins in bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1959-producing-foreign-proteins-in-bacteria
Bacteria can produce foreign proteins from introduced genes, using their own gene expression ...

Virus strains

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/184-virus-strains
A virus is a very simple thing – a coat of protein wrapped around some genetic code (DNA or ...

Spreading diseases

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/192-spreading-diseases
In this activity, students model how a virus spreads through a group. By the end of this ...

Bacteria in biotech – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1957-bacteria-in-biotech-introduction
Find out how and why we use bacteria to improve our lives, and discover how the DNA revolution ...

Introduction to cells

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/186-introduction-to-cells
In this activity, students are introduced to cells. They learn that we are made up of cells ...

How honey heals wounds

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1702-how-honey-heals-wounds
All honeys have properties that help them heal wounds. But how do they do this, and what’s so ...

Bone marrow transplants – timeline

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1971-bone-marrow-transplants-timeline
Bone marrow transplants are now routinely carried out worldwide to treat people with ...

Genes and lactose intolerance

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2016-genes-and-lactose-intolerance
In New Zealand, we drink a lot of milk, so you might be surprised to learn that most adults in ...
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