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ARTICLE

Mendel’s principles of inheritance

Our understanding of how inherited traits are passed between generations comes from principles first proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1866. Mendel worked on pea plants, but his principles apply to ...

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ARTICLE

Meiosis, inheritance and variation

Although we are all unique, there are often obvious similarities within families. Maybe you have the same nose as your brother or red hair like your mother? Family similarities occur because we ...

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Genotype and phenotype

We are all unique. Even monozygotic twins, who are genetically identical, always have some variation in the way they look and act. This uniqueness is a result of the interaction between our ...

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a person or sample of bodily tissue Even though we are all unique, most of our DNA is actually ...

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Mendel’s experiments

Mendel is known as the father of genetics because of his ground-breaking work on inheritance in pea plants 150 years ago. Gregor Johann Mendel was a monk and teacher with interests in astronomy ...

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Transgenic cows – introduction

Scientists at AgResearch in New Zealand have successfully produced healthy transgenic cows that make modified milk or human therapeutic proteins in their milk. What is a transgenic cow ...

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Classifying and identifying ferns

Scientists currently consider that New Zealand has approximately 230 species of fern in about 50 different genera. They are widely distributed throughout the country, including around 42 species ...

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What is a fern?

There are ferns in most New Zealanders’ backyards and local environments. Ferns are green flowerless plants with divided leaves that tend to grow in damp, shady areas. The developing leaves of ...

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ARTICLE

Modern biotechnology

The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led to a new era of modern biotechnology. New Zealand has many applications for modern biotechnologies ...

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ACTIVITY

DNA detective

In this activity, students learn about the collection and processing of DNA evidence and use DNA profiling to solve a crime. The activity is designed for use on an interactive whiteboard with the ...

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ARTICLE

The genotype/phenotype connection

What role do genes play in development? How does your genotype contribute to your phenotype? Or more explicitly, how do genes work together to produce RNA that codes for proteins that make up ...

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Mistakes in DNA

Genetic messages are found on the chromosomes, and we can think of them as genetic codes that are made up of three letter words. For example a very simple genetic message might be: ...

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Techniques used to make transgenic cows

Scientists producing transgenic cows use a range of techniques including DNA cloning, restriction enzyme digests, ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transfection, nuclear transfer and in ...

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Transgenic cows making modified milk

In 2000, AgResearch generated their first transgenic cows. These cows produced modified or ‘designer’ milk. Discover why the scientists did this research and what they found. Cows with modified ...

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ARTICLE

Breeding a new apple cultivar

Breeding a new apple cultivar takes a long time and involves many steps. The aim is to produce high-quality fruit that consumers will like and want to buy. Breeding apples to increase quality The ...

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Obesity: genetic or environmental?

Rachael Taylor is a Research Associate Professor based at the Edgar National Centre for Diabetes Research, University of Otago. Her research focuses on the environmental factors that contribute ...

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Transgenic cows making therapeutic proteins

Scientists at AgResearch have generated transgenic cows that produce therapeutic proteins in their milk. Here, we explain the advantages and disadvantages of using transgenic technologies to ...

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Crime scene evidence

Forensic scientists collect or process trace evidence such as hair, skin, blood or semen samples that is found at crime scenes. Crime scene evidence can include a wide variety of substances such ...

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ARTICLE

What is a plant?

What do you think of when asked to visualise a plant? Is it the feed crop growing in the paddock next door or a large kauri tree growing in a forest? Is it a tiny microscopic alga or the potted ...

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Uniquely me – key Terms

What makes you, you and me, me? Genes or environment? How we look and act is the result of the interaction of our genes with our environment. Even identical twins, with an identical genetic ...

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