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TEACHER PLD

Physical World – Forces

Below are links to Science Learning Hub resources for primary teachers related to forces in the Physical World strand of the New Zealand Curriculum. Topic: Flight Flight explores the physics ...

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Non-Newtonian fluids

Many people have heard of Sir Isaac Newton. He is famous for developing many scientific theories in mathematics and physics. Newton described how ‘normal’ liquids or fluids behave, and he ...

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Rocket aerodynamics

Rocket aerodynamics is the study of how air flows over a rocket and how this affects drag and stability. The nose cone and fins of a rocket are designed to minimise drag (air resistance) and to ...

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How birds fly

One of the requirements for heavier-than-air flying machines is a structure that combines strength with light weight. This is true for birds as well as planes. Birds have many physical features ...

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What levers does your body use?

Muscles and bones act together to form levers. A lever is a rigid rod (usually a length of bone) that turns about a pivot (usually a joint). Levers can be used so that a small force can move a ...

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Energy for exercise

Why is a muscle like a motor bike? Although muscles and engines work in different ways, they both convert chemical energy into energy of motion. A motorbike engine uses the stored energy of ...

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Calculating rocket acceleration

How does the acceleration of a model rocket compare to the Space Shuttle? By using the resultant force and mass, acceleration can be calculated. Forces acting The two forces acting on rockets at ...

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Seismic waves

When an earthquake occurs, the shockwaves of released energy that shake the Earth and temporarily turn soft deposits, such as clay, into jelly (liquefaction) are called seismic waves, from the ...

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How do base isolators work?

Base isolation is a technique developed to prevent or minimise damage to buildings during an earthquake. It has been used in New Zealand, as well as in India, Japan, Italy and the USA. A ...

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Principles of flight

For thousands of years, people have wanted to fly. Our legends and fairy tales are full of humans and animals that can fly – effortlessly gliding through the air. In real life, of course, no one ...

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Meet some muscles

There are over 630 muscles in your body! Here are seven of them: Masseter The masseter runs from the temporal bone (that forms part of the sides and base of the skull) to the lower jaw (the ...

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Muscle structure - muscle under the microscope

Does all muscle look the same? If you were to look at skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle using a microscope, you would see differences in their structure. Skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle looks ...

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Brief history of rockets – timeline

This timeline looks at some of the historical aspects of rockets - taking science and technology to new heights. 1232 - Chinese fire arrows The first true rocket is invented by the Chinese. Fire ...

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Wing aspect ratio

Wing shapes and sizes of both birds and planes determine how they might perform or what they might be capable of (for example, gliding, sustained high speed and manoeuvrability). One way in which ...

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Getting rockets into space

Rockets launched into space can be suborbital (brief visit to space) or orbital (staying in motion around the Earth) or can escape Earth’s gravity to travel deeper into space. What is space? The ...

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A progression of flight - timeline

Use this timeline to find out more about the progression of flight in human history. 1000 BCE - First kites Kites are invented in China. 852 BCE - A king tries to fly The English King Bladud is ...

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Feathers and flight

A bird is designed for flight. The combination of light weight, strength and shape, as well as precision control, is largely responsible for giving birds their special ability for sustained ...

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Rockets and mass

The mass of a rocket is important for two reasons – an object with less mass accelerates more quickly, and an object with more mass has more gravitational force acting on it. To understand these ...

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Causes of aerodynamic drag

Aerodynamics is the study of how air flows over objects and the forces that the air and objects exert on each other. Drag is the force of wind or air resistance pushing in the opposite direction ...

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Under the Earth’s surface

The Earth is an enormous place. There is so much that we don’t yet know about what happens on the surface of the Earth, so how could we possibly know about what happens deep down below the ...

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Wing loading

You can tell a great deal about how a bird lives or what a plane has been designed for just from its wing shape and size. Wings of both birds and planes determine how they might perform or what ...

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Viscosity

If you poured some water down a slope, it would flow freely and quickly, but what about if you repeated the process with honey? Can you imagine how honey would flow down a slope? Sticky oozy ...

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