Gel electrophoresis

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2029-gel-electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis is used to separate macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. DNA ...

Bacterial DNA – the role of plasmids

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However ...

Role of proteins in the body

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/209-role-of-proteins-in-the-body
Proteins are molecules made of amino acids. They are coded for by our genes and form the basis ...

Meiosis, inheritance and variation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/208-meiosis-inheritance-and-variation
Although we are all unique, there are often obvious similarities within families. Maybe you ...

Genotype and phenotype

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/207-genotype-and-phenotype
We are all unique. Even monozygotic twins, who are genetically identical, always have some ...

Bacterial transformation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2032-bacterial-transformation
Bacteria are commonly used as host cells for making copies of DNA in the lab because they are ...

DNA extraction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2036-dna-extraction
DNA extraction is a routine procedure used to isolate DNA from the nucleus of cells. Scientists ...

DNA profiling

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1980-dna-profiling
DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a ...

DNA cloning

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2031-dna-cloning
DNA cloning is the starting point for many genetic engineering approaches to biotechnology ...

Restriction enzymes

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2035-restriction-enzymes
In the laboratory, restriction enzymes (or restriction endonucleases) are used to cut DNA into ...

E. coli – the biotech bacterium

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1899-e-coli-the-biotech-bacterium
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short) is crucial in modern biotechnology ...

Impacts of biotechnology on society

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1209-impacts-of-biotechnology-on-society
Biotechnology has helped improve the quality of people’s lives for over 10,000 years. Today’s ...

How to add foreign DNA to bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to ...

Transgenic cows – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/834-transgenic-cows-introduction
Scientists at AgResearch in New Zealand have successfully produced healthy transgenic cows that ...

Modern biotechnology

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1206-modern-biotechnology
The discovery that genes are made up of DNA and can be isolated, copied and manipulated has led ...

DNA, chromosomes and gene expression

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/206-dna-chromosomes-and-gene-expression
We hear about DNA all the time, whether it’s in a news story or the latest crime show on TV ...

History of xenotransplantation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1214-history-of-xenotransplantation
Xenotransplantation was attempted unsuccessfully in the early 1900s. Several key research ...

Xenotransplantation – introduction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1213-xenotransplantation-introduction
Xenotransplantation is when living cells, tissues or organs are transplanted between species ...

Mistakes in DNA

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1328-mistakes-in-dna
Genetic messages are found on the chromosomes, and we can think of them as genetic codes that ...

The genotype/phenotype connection

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/201-the-genotype-phenotype-connection
What role do genes play in development? How does your genotype contribute to your phenotype? Or ...

Techniques used to make transgenic cows

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/857-techniques-used-to-make-transgenic-cows
Scientists producing transgenic cows use a range of techniques including DNA cloning ...

Gel electrophoresis can be used to find genes associated ...

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2053-gel-electrophoresis-can-be-used-to-find-genes-associated-with-a-disease
In this simulated case, the researchers are looking for DNA fragments that are only found in ...

Proteins – what they are and how they’re made

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1901-proteins-what-they-are-and-how-they-re-made
Proteins are the key working molecules and building blocks in all cells. They are produced in a ...

Transgenic cows making modified milk

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/843-transgenic-cows-making-modified-milk
In 2000, AgResearch generated their first transgenic cows. These cows produced modified or ...
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