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ARTICLE

How elements are formed

Our world is made of elements and combinations of elements called compounds. An element is a pure substance made of atoms that are all of the same type. At present, 116 elements are known, and ...

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ARTICLE

Development of the periodic table

Although elements such as gold, silver, tin, copper, lead and mercury have been known since earliest times, the first scientific discovery of an element occurred in 1649. Hennig Brand, a German ...

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ARTICLE

Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle can seem like a complex process because there are many interacting parts. Carbon is found in both organic (living) and inorganic (non-living) forms. Before we discuss the cycle ...

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ARTICLE

What is energy?

This is both a simple and complex question. Energy is in everything – it is often described as ‘the ability to do work’. Almost all food energy comes originally from sunlight. The chemical ...

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ARTICLE

Non-renewable energy sources

Energy comes from many sources, and to describe these sources we use two terms: renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewable energy resources cannot be replaced – once they are used up, they will ...

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ARTICLE

Metals, alloys and metal compounds

From titanium implants to new superconducting alloys to useful metal compounds, we are increasingly dependent on metals. Without metals, modern civilisation would literally collapse. About 80% of ...

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ARTICLE

Periodic table of elements

The periodic table of elements puts all the known elements into groups with similar properties. This makes it an important tool for chemists, nanotechnologists and other scientists. If you get to ...

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ARTICLE

Distances in space

Distances in space are really, really big. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is heading out of our Solar System at 62,000 km per hour, but even at that speed, it would take it 77,000 years to reach the ...

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ARTICLE

Energy sources through time – timeline

Use this timeline to explore how humans have relied on fossil fuels in the past and how we are looking for, and using, new energy sources. 200,000 BC - Fire used Records of the first controlled ...

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ARTICLE

The Sun and white dwarfs

Professor Denis Sullivan studies white dwarfs – small and dense stars that are cooling down after being red giants. Our Sun, and most other stars, will eventually become a white dwarf. The life ...

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ARTICLE

Climate change, melting ice and sea level rise

One implication of climate change is sea level rise. Sea level is the average height of the ocean relative to the land, between the high and low tides. The rising global temperature is causing ...

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ACTIVITY

Carbon dioxide emissions calculator

This activity requires access to two Internet sites: a carbon emissions calculator and a school emissions calculator. Students can use the online calculator to calculate and compare the amount of ...

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ACTIVITY

Big Bang theory

In this activity, students gain understanding of the role the Large Hadron Collider is playing in exploring the current models for the structure of matter. It is a video clip and science article ...

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ARTICLE

Titanium – metal of the future

Titanium is being increasingly used in our modern society. It is light, strong and corrosion-resistant. These properties allow it to be used in the aerospace industry, building industry, sports ...

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TEACHER PLD

Linking ideas, activities and lessons

In the primary classroom, even though teachers and students generally spend the day together, it cannot be assumed that students will experience their learning as coherent, connected or ...

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ARTICLE

Nuclear energy

For many people, the term ‘nuclear energy’ is associated with negative events and feelings. However, it is important to be informed about any topic before developing your own conclusions. What is ...

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