The body’s first line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/177-the-body-s-first-line-of-defence
Your body has a two-line defence system against pathogens (germs) that make you sick. Pathogens ...

Bacterial DNA – the role of plasmids

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1900-bacterial-dna-the-role-of-plasmids
Like other organisms, bacteria use double-stranded DNA as their genetic material. However ...

Role of proteins in the body

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/209-role-of-proteins-in-the-body
Proteins are molecules made of amino acids. They are coded for by our genes and form the basis ...

Meiosis, inheritance and variation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/208-meiosis-inheritance-and-variation
Although we are all unique, there are often obvious similarities within families. Maybe you ...

The body’s second line of defence

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/178-the-body-s-second-line-of-defence
If the pathogens are able to get past the first line of defence, for example, through a cut in ...

What levers does your body use?

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1924-what-levers-does-your-body-use
Muscles and bones act together to form levers. A lever is a rigid rod (usually a length of ...

Cell organelles

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/499-cell-organelles
Every cell in your body contains organelles (structures that have specific functions). Just ...

Bacteria – good, bad and ugly

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/588-bacteria-good-bad-and-ugly
Bacteria range from the essential and useful, to the harmful. Essential bacteria Without the ...

Genotype and phenotype

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/207-genotype-and-phenotype
We are all unique. Even monozygotic twins, who are genetically identical, always have some ...

Energy for exercise

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1920-energy-for-exercise
Why is a muscle like a motor bike? Although muscles and engines work in different ways, they ...

Bacterial transformation

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2032-bacterial-transformation
Bacteria are commonly used as host cells for making copies of DNA in the lab because they are ...

DNA extraction

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2036-dna-extraction
DNA extraction is a routine procedure used to isolate DNA from the nucleus of cells. Scientists ...

Food’s journey through the digestive system

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1849-food-s-journey-through-the-digestive-system
A look at the time it takes for food to pass through the gut from mouth to anus. In a healthy ...

DNA profiling

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1980-dna-profiling
DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a ...

DNA cloning

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2031-dna-cloning
DNA cloning is the starting point for many genetic engineering approaches to biotechnology ...

Muscle structure - muscle under the microscope

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1917-muscle-structure-muscle-under-the-microscope
Does all muscle look the same? If you were to look at skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle using ...

E. coli – the biotech bacterium

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1899-e-coli-the-biotech-bacterium
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short) is crucial in modern biotechnology ...

Mitochondria – cell powerhouses

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1839-mitochondria-cell-powerhouses
Mitochondria are tiny organelles inside cells that are involved in releasing energy from food ...

Preparing samples for the electron microscope

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/500-preparing-samples-for-the-electron-microscope
Electron microscopes are very powerful tools for visualising biological samples. They enable ...

Impacts of biotechnology on society

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1209-impacts-of-biotechnology-on-society
Biotechnology has helped improve the quality of people’s lives for over 10,000 years. Today’s ...

How microscopes magnify

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/496-how-microscopes-magnify
A microscope is something that uses a lens or lenses to make small objects look bigger and to ...

Animal cells and their shapes

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/498-animal-cells-and-their-shapes
Cells are the building blocks of life – all living organisms are made up of them. Textbooks ...

How to add foreign DNA to bacteria

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/527-how-to-add-foreign-dna-to-bacteria
Using modern laboratory techniques, it is relatively easy to add pieces of foreign DNA to ...

Large intestine function

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1832-large-intestine-function
Recent research has revealed that the large intestine and its resident bacterial population ...
Load more