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ARTICLE

How elements are formed

Our world is made of elements and combinations of elements called compounds. An element is a pure substance made of atoms that are all of the same type. At present, 116 elements are known, and ...

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ARTICLE

Development of the periodic table

Although elements such as gold, silver, tin, copper, lead and mercury have been known since earliest times, the first scientific discovery of an element occurred in 1649. Hennig Brand, a German ...

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ARTICLE

Large intestine function

Recent research has revealed that the large intestine and its resident bacterial population have key roles to play in determining our health and wellbeing. It is much more than just a waste ...

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ARTICLE

Digestion – breaking the large into the small

Digestion of food involves both physical and chemical processes. Through digestion, large food particles are converted into smaller components that can be readily absorbed into the bloodstream. ...

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ARTICLE

Carbonate chemistry

Calcium carbonate is the principal mineral component of limestone. Its chemical and physical properties lie behind the modern-day uses of limestone as well as the unique limestone landscapes of ...

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ARTICLE

The human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of a long muscular tube and several accessory organs such as the salivary glandspancreas and gall bladder. It is responsible for food ingestion and digestion ...

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Rate of digestion

Digestion of food involves chemical reactions that break up large food molecules into their ‘building block’ components. There are a number of factors that affect the rates of these reactions ...

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Hormonal control of digestion

It has now been well established that gut hormones have a key role in controlling food intake and energy expenditure. The gut is the body’s largest hormone-producing organ, releasing more than 20 ...

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ARTICLE

Digestion chemistry – introduction

Food plays an extremely important part in the lives of all humans. After ingestion, the food is mechanically broken down into smaller pieces and then chemically digested through the action of ...

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ARTICLE

Limestone uses

The calcium carbonate content of limestone rocks has been used from the earliest civilisations, dating back to 14,000 BCE, to its extensive use in modern times. It is a valuable resource that ...

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Metals, alloys and metal compounds

From titanium implants to new superconducting alloys to useful metal compounds, we are increasingly dependent on metals. Without metals, modern civilisation would literally collapse. About 80% of ...

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ARTICLE

Unlocking the energy in foods

The foods we eat supply the energy needed by the body to drive its complex chemical, mechanical and electrical systems. Where does this energy come from, how is it locked into food molecules and ...

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ARTICLE

Limestone landscapes

Limestone is one of the most common sedimentary rocks found in New Zealand. Eye-catching features such as caves, sinkholes and spectacular skyline landscapes are often associated with limestone ...

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ACTIVITY

Big Bang theory

In this activity, students gain understanding of the role the Large Hadron Collider is playing in exploring the current models for the structure of matter. It is a video clip and science article ...

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Limestone origins

Limestone is a very common sedimentary rock consisting of more than 50% calcium carbonate. Although it occurs in many different forms, its origins can be traced back to either chemical or ...

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ARTICLE

Periodic table of elements

The periodic table of elements puts all the known elements into groups with similar properties. This makes it an important tool for chemists, nanotechnologists and other scientists. If you get to ...

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ARTICLE

Titanium – metal of the future

Titanium is being increasingly used in our modern society. It is light, strong and corrosion-resistant. These properties allow it to be used in the aerospace industry, building industry, sports ...

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