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Timeline – Early discoveries about titanium

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Slide the time bar to see key dates relating to early discoveries about titanium. Pause the mouse pointer over any of the boxes to see additional information about each event. Find out more by browsing or searching the hub.

1791

Titanium discovered

William Gregor, Vicar of Creed Parish in Cornwall and amateur geologist, examines magnetic sand from a local river. After removing the magnetic iron oxide and treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, he is left with an impure white oxide of a new element.

1795

Titanium named

Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a chemist working in Germany, independently isolates a white oxide from a Hungarian mineral known as rutile. He gives the name titanium to the new metal element.

1910

Metal isolated from oxide

Matthew Hunter, an American chemist, isolates the metal from its oxide.

1916

Commercial application

Titanium dioxide becomes available as a commercial product and is used as a white pigment in paints.

1932

Titanium production breakthrough

Wilhelm Justin Kroll, from Luxembourg, produces significant quantities of titanium by combining titanium tetrachloride with calcium.

1940

Kroll Process developed

Kroll moves to America and modifies his process to meet commercial standards. Today, titanium is produced by the “Kroll Process”.

1948

Commercial production

The DuPont Company is the first to produce titanium commercially.

1960s

Military applications

Russia uses titanium alloys in military and submarine applications, while America uses titanium alloys for engine parts and fuselage/wing coverings in high-performance military aircraft.

1985

Titanium hip

The first hip replacement operation using titanium alloy implants. Titanium alloys are biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, able to carry mechanical loads and are lightweight.

2001

Titanium heart

First artificial heart transplant operation. The metallic parts are made of titanium.

2008

Titanium plane

Airbus A380, capable of carrying 550 passengers, weighs in at 280 tonnes – 145 tonnes of this is the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

Acknowledgements:
Image: iStockphoto.com/Jeff Fullertonexternal link 

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